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Lisan Yu

salinity in a thin ocean surface layer that is penetrated by electromagnetic radiation. Aquarius/SAC-D and SMOS satellites retrieve SSS from microwave brightness temperature of seawater at L band (1.4 GHz; Klein and Swift 1977 ; Blume et al. 1978 ; Swift and McIntosh 1983 ), at which the microwave penetration depth (defined as the depth at which the incoming power density is reduced by a factor of e −2 ) is about 1 cm for seawater at 20°C ( Swift 1980 ). Though the penetration depth is much deeper

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Gunnar I. Roden

factors which, in general, dependupon latitude. The radiative flux at the sea surface is attenuatedon its downward path into the ocean. The attenuationcoefficient 3' for shortwave radiation varies between0.1 and 0.3 m-~ (Tyler and Smith., 1970). Most ofthe shortwave radiative flux is attenuated in theupper 100 m of the ocean. The attenuation coefficientfor longwave radiation is much higher so that practically all of the energy is attenuated in the upper0.1 m. Thus, at depths below 0.1 m, only the

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Satoru Komori, Koji Iwano, Naohisa Takagaki, Ryo Onishi, Ryoichi Kurose, Keiko Takahashi, and Naoya Suzuki

covered by a foam polystyrene plate, perfectly stopping heat transfer across the air–water interface. The temperatures on the air and water sides were measured using thermocouples (Anritsu AM8000). The bulk specific humidity was measured using an infrared absorption humidity meter (LI-COR LI7000) at a fetch of x = 6.5 m corresponding to the center of the test section interface. The water surface temperature was measured using an infrared radiation thermometer (Nippon Avionics TVS-8502) at the same

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Andrew J. Wells, Claudia Cenedese, J. Thomas Farrar, and Christopher J. Zappa

-surface turbulence and surfactants in air-water gas transfer. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer , 47 , 539 – 553 . Okuda , K. , 1983 : Internal flow structure of short wind waves. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan , 38 , 28 – 42 . Osborne , M. F. M. , 1965 : The effect of convergent and divergent flow patterns on infrared and optical radiation from the sea. Ocean Dyn. , 18 , 1 – 25 . Pearson , J. R. A. , 1958 : On the convection cells induced by surface tension. J. Fluid Mech. , 4 , 489 – 500 . Peirson

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Harry G. Stumpf and Richard V. Legeckis

Central America was observed during February 1976 by a thermal infrared sensor aboard the NOAA 4 satellite. These anticycloniceddies, closely associated with wind-induced upwellings, propagate westward at an average speed of 13km day-~, which is approximately the speed of nondispersive baroclinic Rossby waves at latitude 12*N.1. Introduction Strong northerly winds and resultant upwellingsalong the Pacific coast of southern Mexico and CentralAmerica have long been subjects of investigation

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Kern E. Kenyon and David Sheres

of the water parcel, with and without waves, and called the combination “radiation stress.” They then postulated the exchanges between the radiation stress and the current shear and calculated these exchanges using a modified conservation equation for waves. Garrett (1976) calculated the force applied by a wave train on a shear flow, in the context of explaining the relatively small scale Langmuir circulation; he used the momentum conservation equation for the combined wave and current flow, as

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Alain Colin de Verdière

have been obtained by coupling the previous three-box ocean model (1) to a simplified version of an energy balance model (EBM) proposed by Marotzke and Stone (1995) . The atmospheric temperatures are determined by a balance between incoming solar radiation, outgoing infrared radiation, and heat exchange at the ocean surface. Meridional heat transport is parameterized as a diffusion process with a constant (turbulent) diffusivity. The freshwater transports are imposed so that only the temperature

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John L. Wilkin

) Coastal Relief Model ( Divins and Metzger 2003 ) augmented by soundings digitized from charts in Muskeget Channel. Open boundary conditions are applied to tracers and baroclinic velocity using Orlanski-type radiation conditions in conjunction with relaxation ( Marchesiello et al. 2001 ), with time scales of 0.5 days on inflow and 10 days on outflow, to a regional bimonthly climatology ( Naimie et al. 1994 ). The free surface and depth-integrated velocity boundary conditions use the method of Flather

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Benjamin A. Hodges and David M. Fratantoni

signature by inducing vertical mixing ( Fig. 1 ). Even smaller platforms can cause significant disruption: Farrar et al. (2007) report a ~300-m-long cool wake downstream of a 3-m mooring buoy in airborne infrared measurements of SST under low winds; near-surface temperature sensors on such moorings typically indicate little stratification in the upper meter, even under low-wind, high-insolation conditions (see, e.g., Walsh et al. 1998 , their Figs. 14 and 16). Fig . 1. Temperature observed during a

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Sophia E. Brumer, Christopher J. Zappa, Ian M. Brooks, Hitoshi Tamura, Scott M. Brown, Byron W. Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

) and infrared ( Jessup et al. 1997 ) imagery. Globally, W can be inferred from satelliteborne microwave radiometers (e.g., Anguelova and Webster 2006 ; Salisbury et al. 2013 ). Being such a readily observable quantity, W has been recognized as a promising proxy for quantifying wave breaking–dependent processes that have complex impacts on the energy, momentum, heat, and mass transfer at the air–water interface. Large-scale wave breaking is the least understood key element in determining the

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