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Jian Zhang, Youcun Qi, Carrie Langston, Brian Kaney, and Kenneth Howard

distribution and sampling size errors . J. Atmos. Sci. , 26 , 566 – 569 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1969)026<0566:RSDASS>2.0.CO;2 . Kingsmill, D. E. , Neiman P. J. , Moore B. J. , Hughes M. , Yuter S. E. , and Ralph F. M. , 2013 : Kinematic and thermodynamic structures of Sierra barrier jets and overrunning atmospheric rivers during a landfalling winter storm in northern California . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 141 , 2015 – 2036 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00277.1 . Kitchen, M. , Brown R. , and Davies

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Isidora Jankov, Lewis D. Grasso, Manajit Sengupta, Paul J. Neiman, Dusanka Zupanski, Milija Zupanski, Daniel Lindsey, Donald W. Hillger, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, Renate Brummer, and Huiling Yuan

) successfully produced synthetic imagery of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) that is part of the Meteosat Second Generation ( MSG ) satellite. In their study, imagery was produced from output of version 2.2 of the WRF model that covered a relatively large domain. Traditionally, the performance of a numerical model has been evaluated by comparing simulated kinematic and/or thermodynamic fields to observed fields. For example, some of the fields may be surface winds, temperature

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Jessica M. Erlingis, Jonathan J. Gourley, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, John Kalogiros, Marios N. Anagnostou, and Walt Petersen

, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD900123 . 10.1029/1999JD900123 Yuter , S. E. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1995 : Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 1941 – 1963 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 Zhang , J. , and Coauthors , 2016 : Multi-Radar Multi

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James M. Gilbert, Reed M. Maxwell, and David J. Gochis

nested WRF simulation, a spatial and temporal (14–28 July 2003) subset of the simulated conditions from the 3-km nest was processed to produce boundary and initial conditions for the coupled San Joaquin basin domain. c. ParFlow hydrologic model The ParFlow component of this study simulates variably saturated subsurface flow and overland flow with a fully implicit solution of the three-dimensional mixed form of the Richards equation and a kinematic wave approximation for surface flow ( Ashby and

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Andreas Stohl and Paul James

the hydrological cycle. J. Climate , 6 , 161 – 167 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<0161:OTABOT>2.0.CO;2 Crimp, S. J. , and Mason S. J. , 1999 : The extreme precipitation event of 11 to 16 February 1996 over South Africa. Meteor. Atmos. Phys , 70 , 29 – 42 . 10.1007/s007030050023 D'Abreton, P. C. , and Tyson P. D. , 1996 : Three-dimensional kinematic trajectory modelling of water vapour transport over Southern Africa. Water SA , 22 , 297 – 306 . Dirmeyer, P. A. , and Brubaker K

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Daniel Deacu, Vincent Fortin, Erika Klyszejko, Christopher Spence, and Peter D. Blanken

Soulis et al. (2011) . The model used for gridded river routing is WATROUTE, which is the routing component of the hydrological model WATFLOOD ( Kouwen 2010 ). WATROUTE and ISBA share the same grid. The drainage simulated by ISBA is directly transferred to WATROUTE, whereas the surface runoff is first delayed over the grid cell by the kinematic wave method to simulate the overland flow (flow over the land surface following its slope) and then added to the interflow before being transferred. WATROUTE

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Charlotte M. Emery, Sylvain Biancamaria, Aaron Boone, Pierre-André Garambois, Sophie Ricci, Mélanie C. Rochoux, and Bertrand Decharme

final remark about this SA is that the following results are quite dependent on the chosen parameters along with their perturbation range, but also on the chosen model itself. Indeed, the TRIP model considers only the kinematic wave propagation equation for the river reservoir. Other studies include diffusive wave propagation equation ( Yamazaki et al. 2011 ; Winsemius et al. 2013 ) in their routing models along with a finer description of the topography and the flood dynamics. Even 2D

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Katja Friedrich, Evan A. Kalina, Joshua Aikins, David Gochis, and Roy Rasmussen

.1175/1520-0493(1978)106<0375:COMAOT>2.0.CO;2 . Marwitz, J. D. , 1987 : Deep orographic storms over the Sierra Nevada. Part I: Thermodynamic and kinematic structure . J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 159 – 173 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<0159:DOSOTS>2.0.CO;2 . McKee, T. B. , and Doesken N. J. , 1997 : Final report: Colorado extreme precipitation data study. Climatology Rep. 97 - 1 , Dept. of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, 107 pp. [Available online at http://ccc.atmos.colostate.edu/pdfs/Climo_97-1_Extreme

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Graham P. Weedon, Christel Prudhomme, Sue Crooks, Richard J. Ellis, Sonja S. Folwell, and Martin J. Best

discharge time series for 1963–2001 ( www.eu-watch.org/data_availability ). Haddeland et al. (2011) provide summaries and references to the designs of the models (excluding CLASSIC) with comparisons of monthly average outputs globally and for selected large catchments. CLASSIC uses a 20 km × 20 km grid, rather than the WATCH 0.5° grid, with flow paths and runoff delays represented as a kinematic wave from headwater grid boxes to the outlet grid box ( Crooks and Naden 2007 ). The only models calibrated

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Charlotte M. Emery, Cédric H. David, Konstantinos M. Andreadis, Michael J. Turmon, John T. Reager, Jonathan M. Hobbs, Ming Pan, James S. Famiglietti, Edward Beighley, and Matthew Rodell

such as the kinematic wave equation ( Weinmann 1979 ) or the Muskingum method ( McCarthy 1938 ; Cunge 1969 ). Models such as Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP; Oki and Sud 1998 ), PCRaster Global Water Balance model (PCR-GLOBWB; van Beek and Bierkens 2008 ), or Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP; Getirana et al. 2012 ) use the kinematic wave approximation while others such as the Global Water Availability Assessment (GWAVA; Meigh et al. 1999 ), Hillslope River Routing

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