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Eleanor J. Burke and Simon J. Brown

, convection, radiation, boundary layer, dynamics, land surface, and sea ice and are detailed by Collins et al. (2006) . The parameter that has most relevance here is whether the plants stomata respond to increased CO 2 or not; if they respond there is a decrease in evapotranspiration and increase in temperature with increasing CO 2 ( Betts et al. 2007 ). The perturbations were selected to result in a range of climate sensitivities (the difference in global mean temperature between 1×CO 2 and 2×CO 2

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Martina Lagasio, Francesco Silvestro, Lorenzo Campo, and Antonio Parodi

1. Introduction The Mediterranean region is frequently struck by severe floods and flash floods causing a significant death toll and several millions of euros of damage. The western Mediterranean area is characterized by a complex orography (Alps, Apennines, Massif Central, Pyrenees), often sitting close to the coastline, that is potentially able to enhance or even to trigger the deep convective processes originating over the warm sea in the fall season ( Rebora et al. 2013 ; Ducrocq et al

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Phil P. Harris, Sonja S. Folwell, Belen Gallego-Elvira, José Rodríguez, Sean Milton, and Christopher M. Taylor

initial conditions . J. Climate , 19 , 3659 – 3680 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI3810.1 . 10.1175/JCLI3810.1 Feudale , L. , and J. Shukla , 2007 : Role of Mediterranean SST in enhancing the European heat wave of summer 2003 . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L03811 , doi: 10.1029/2006GL027991 . 10.1029/2006GL027991 Feudale , L. , and J. Shukla , 2011 : Influence of sea surface temperature on the European heat wave of 2003 summer. Part II: A modeling study . Climate Dyn. , 36 , 1705 – 1715 , doi: 10

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

associated with relatively shallow cloud features in Spain near the Mediterranean Sea. Smaller inland lakes such as the Finger Lakes region in upstate New York also produce appreciable lake-effect snow ( Laird et al. 2010 ). Lake-effect snow, however, is not the only form of shallow snowfall. Shallow Arctic clouds, with forcing mechanisms that differ from lake-effect snow, also commonly produce snowfall. Snow-generating Arctic mixed-phase clouds are also an important supercooled cloud liquid water sink

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N. Hasler, R. Avissar, and G. E. Liston

parameterization of convective precipitation. Whether higher resolution would improve the representation of the regional climate system remains to be assessed. Since circulations induced by land surface features, often associated with convection, occur preferentially at 10–20-km length scales ( Baidya Roy et al. 2003b ), finer resolution may be particularly important in studies of land-cover change impacts on climate. Convection is an important atmospheric process characteristic of the western Mediterranean

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Aristeidis G. Koutroulis, Aggeliki-Eleni K. Vrohidou, and Ioannis K. Tsanis

. Study area and data description The island of Crete is located in the southeastern part of the Mediterranean region ( Fig. 4 ) and is well known to be one of the most drought-prone areas of Greece. Political interests and disputes among the four prefectures and the more than 100 municipalities of the island, as well as poor water management, have created a public belief that water resources are inadequate and that some kind of drought is imminent ( Manios and Tsanis 2006 ). The island has a surface

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J. Teng, F. H. S. Chiew, J. Vaze, S. Marvanek, and D. G. C. Kirono

the significant water reform that is currently happening in Australia. For the purpose of this paper, the large areas of southeast Australia and northern Australia are each divided into two regions. The Budyko and Fu runoff estimates are therefore compared with hydrological modeling results from six regions ( Fig. 1 ): summer-dominated runoff area of southeast Australia (SEA_SUM), winter-dominated runoff area of southeast Australia (SEA_WIN), Tasmania (TAS), eastern part of northern Australia (NA

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Csaba Torma, Erika Coppola, Filippo Giorgi, Judit Bartholy, and Rita Pongrácz

precipitation modulated by local topography. The annual average precipitation over Hungary is about 600–650 mm; however, the spatial distribution of precipitation is highly varied, from humid conditions in the southwestern part of the basin, where the effect of the Mediterranean Sea is considerable, to semiarid conditions over eastern Hungary. Climate scenarios produced in support of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( Solomon et al. 2007 ) suggest changes in

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Elisa Brussolo, Jost von Hardenberg, Luca Ferraris, Nicola Rebora, and Antonello Provenzale

accumulated over 3 h, with a spatial resolution of 7 km. These three case studies presented the following synoptic situations: 10–12 April 2005: A low pressure center over the northern part of the Mediterranean Sea was maintained for 2 days by an Arctic airflow. The cyclone led to convective instability with intense bursts of precipitation over the northern regions of Italy. 7–9 September 2005 : Strong convective activity over southeastern France and northwestern Italy was due to a low pressure

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Leo Pio D’Adderio, Gianfranco Vulpiani, Federico Porcù, Ali Tokay, and Robert Meneghini

footprints used in the analysis are only those reporting liquid precipitation (as identified by DPR) below the BB, when it is clearly detected, or the freezing level both reported as outputs by DPR/DPR–GMI algorithm. In addition, the samples have been divided according to the surface type (land and sea) as classified by the DPR. b. DPC ground radars properties The DPC currently manages seven C-band and two X-band radar systems, all with dual-polarization capabilities. For this work, two C-band radars

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