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Jeffrey Cardille, Michael T. Coe, and Julie A. Vano

similarly in the model ( Figure 8 top and middle). In these lakes, where today there are no stream outlets, a substantial long-term increase in precipitation could cause them to become drainage lakes, as their basins fill and the surplus water is converted to outflow. In wetter scenarios, modeled outflow increases not only in absolute terms but also relative to other components of the water balance; groundwater outflow and evapotranspiration also increase, though not as quickly as stream outflow. The

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Mark R. Jury

Sea and Ethiopian highlands act as sources of inflow below 3000 m in this case. Figure 4. HYSPLIT back trajectory ensemble analysis over 48 h ending 1200 UTC 25 Aug 2009 at (left) 1000, (middle) 3000, and (right) 5000 m for the (top) northern and (bottom) southern convective centers. Scales vary; vertical sections included. 3.4. Transient wave analysis 22–29 August 2009 Hovmöller plots of 6-hourly meteorological data and 3-hourly satellite rainfall averaged 8°–20°N ( Figure 5 ) show westward

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

area in 1992 (bottom-left panel), 2001 (bottom-middle panel), and 2006 (bottom-right panel). Less change is observed in the upstream area, while urbanization has intensified around Fair Oaks and city of Folsom. The fact that the watershed is less urbanized makes it more suitable for our study to consider realistic future scenarios of LULC change and imperviousness under population pressure and economic development. 3. Data and methodology 3.1. Methodology 3.1.1. General approach The objective of

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Nazzareno Diodato and Gianni Bellocchi

left out of this study for their distinct climate patterns ( Lionello et al. 2006 ). In a western area, including the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco (with the Atlas and Rif Mountains) and forming part of the eastern Atlantic–European region, orographic cyclogenesis is often triggered by the passage of Atlantic cyclones. Instead, areas of intense cyclogenic activity occur in the eastern Mediterranean region (including parts of Greece and Turkey) around Cyprus and the Middle East, to a large extent

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Saumya Sarkar, Jonathan B. Butcher, Thomas E. Johnson, and Christopher M. Clark

of water, nitrogen, and carbon, as well as upward and downward fluxes of longwave and shortwave radiation, but do not estimate air temperature or urban “canyon” effects on heat absorption and turbulent exchange. Urban streets flanked by buildings on either side, creating a canyon-like environment, are commonly referred to as urban canyons. The vertical radiation exchanges between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere are combined with evapotranspiration (ET) output to approximate the net impact on

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Carlos M. Souza Jr., Dar A. Roberts, and AndréL. Monteiro

parameters of the atmospheric correction model were determined by a trial-and-error sensitivity analysis of a dark object reflectance (a lake). The final parameters were estimated when the expected reflectance values of the dark object were found. The fixed water vapor was 40 mm, and image atmosphere visibility was 25 km. The other images ( Table 2 ) were intercalibrated to the reflectance image using a relative radiometric calibration approach ( Roberts et al. 1998 ; Furby and Campbell 2001 ). This

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Douglas C. Morton, Ruth S. DeFries, Yosio E. Shimabukuro, Liana O. Anderson, Fernando Del Bon Espírito-Santo, Matthew Hansen, and Mark Carroll

, College Park, for 2001 and 2002 by subsetting global products for each test scene (M. Hansen and M. Carroll 2004, personal communication). Daily MOD09 data were used as algorithm inputs and to derive additional input products. Red and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance bands and the derived normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI; calculated as (Red − NIR)/(Red + NIR)] at 250-m resolution were evaluated in this study. Blue and middle-infrared (MIR) reflectance bands, resampled from 500- to 250-m

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A. Park Williams, Joel Michaelsen, Steven W. Leavitt, and Christopher J. Still

. Finally, increasing concentrations of CO 2 in the atmosphere will likely have important impacts on plants, and these effects are anticipated to vary widely by region and species ( Ward and Strain 1999 ). The effect of CO 2 enrichment on tree growth is difficult to identify in RWI records, however, because the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has been steadily rising throughout the industrial era without substantial interannual variability. Therefore, the decreasing radial growth rate that

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Paolina Bongioannini Cerlini, Lorenzo Silvestri, Silvia Meniconi, and Bruno Brunone

climate reanalysis of archived observations, concerning the recent history of the atmosphere, land surface, and oceans. Reanalysis, providing estimates of the atmospheric parameters (e.g., air temperature, pressure and wind at different altitudes, rainfall, and surface parameters), include millions of observations into a stable data assimilation system. Depending on the type of the reanalysis and version (see below), such estimates, extending back several decades, are available for all locations on

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

1. Introduction The vertical exchange of CO 2 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere constitutes the largest, single-component flux in the global carbon cycle (e.g., Beer et al. 2010 ). Spatiotemporal patterns of flux exchange display pronounced variability between regions. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States represents one of the strongest carbon sinks in North America (e.g., Law et al. 2004 ; Law and Waring 2015 ). Accurate quantification of the magnitude of

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