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Kenneth Sassen, Michael K. Griffin, and Gregory C. Dodd

FEBRUARY 1989 SASSEN, GRIFFIN AND DODD 91Optical Scattering and Microphysical Properties of Subvisual Cirrus Clouds, and Climatic ImplicationsKENNETH SASSEN, MICHAEL K. GRIFFIN* AND GREGORY C. DODDMeteorology Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah(Manuscript received 29 Februax~ 1988, in final form 18 May 1988) ABSTRACT The optical and microphysical

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Brian F. Ryan

The case study presented here shows the following. The new parameterization allows ice crystal numbers and optical properties to be diagnosed in models that use a bulk microphysical parameterization. The ice particle numbers and the optical depth are two important properties that can be validated against observations. The new parameterization unifies the radiation and precipitation branches of the microphysical package. The ice crystal numbers and optical properties diagnosed are in reasonable

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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Manson, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, R. T. Austin, and J. H. Churnside

Experiment (PROBE) held in Kavieng, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea (PNG). This experiment in turn was part of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. The aim of the experiment was to acquire a dataset on the optical and structural properties of cirrus clouds at an equatorial site at 2°S latitude. The cloud properties could then be compared with those obtained in midlatitude and tropical regions (e.g., Platt et al. 1987 , hereafter referred to as P6). The data

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Markus Degünther and Gottfried Hänel

1. Introduction Atmospheric particles scatter and absorb solar radiation. Consequently, they influence the energy budget of the atmosphere–earth system. To be able to understand the interaction of radiation with particles their optical properties have to be determined. These properties depend on the compositions, structures, shapes, and sizes of the particles ( Levin and Lindberg 1979 ; Patterson 1981 ; Bohren and Huffman 1983 ; Hill et al. 1984 ; Schuerman et al. 1981 ; Zerull et al. 1980

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Anthony W. Strawa, Rene Castaneda, Thomas Owano, Douglas S. Baer, and Barbara A. Paldus

). Hansen et al. (1998) estimated the global-average direct forcing due to aerosols to be −0.4 (±0.3) W m –2 and the indirect forcing due to aerosols through changes in cloud to be −1.0 (+0.5/−1.0) W m –2 . These large uncertainties are due to inadequate knowledge of aerosol optical properties and to their large spatial and temporal variation. Despite the importance of aerosol effects, little reduction of the uncertainties associated with these effects has occurred over the last 10 yr. Regionally

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Gerald G. Mace, Stephanie Houser, Sally Benson, Stephen A. Klein, and Qilong Min

foresight is clearly a credit to the developers of ISCCP because, more than a quarter-century later, ISCCP remains a flagship description of the cloudy atmosphere. By analyzing visible and infrared radiances produced by geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites and applying assumptions regarding the layering of clouds in the atmosphere, their thermodynamic phases, and their properties, ISCCP describes a cloudy satellite pixel with the column visible optical depth ( τ ) and cloud

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C. M. R. Platt

to what would happen to OFn/OAcfor temporal changes in cloud amount. He concludedthat global OF~/OAc was close to zero. However, thiswas not true for individual zones. Given a perturbation in cloud amount, various atmospheric mechanisms can feed back to either amplify or damp this perturbation. The origins of such feedback, let alone their sign, are not yet fully under stood. Much more and better data on the optical properties of clouds is needed. Because of the multi various nature of clouds

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Tomoaki Nishizawa, Shoji Asano, Akihiro Uchiyama, and Akihiro Yamazaki

1. Introduction Atmospheric aerosols substantially affect the radiation budget of the earth–atmosphere system in both direct and indirect ways. The direct effect is directly related to scattering and absorption of solar radiation by aerosol particles (e.g., Charlson et al. 1992 ; Kiehl and Briegleb 1993 ). The indirect effect is seen in the way aerosols influence optical properties and the lifetime of clouds through cloud formation processes (e.g., Twomey 1977 ; Albrecht 1989 ). In the

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W. J. Koshak

improved the physical understanding of cloud-top lightning optical emissions ( Suszcynsky et al. 2001 ; Light et al. 2001a ; Kirkland et al. 2001 ; Davis et al. 2002 ; Light and Jacobson 2002 ; Noble et al. 2004 ; Beasley and Edgar 2004 ). Credit is due to the study by Davis et al. (2002) for providing specific additional information on flash optical properties as a function of flash type, where the flash type is corroborated by the FORTE VHF data. Note that by discriminating flash type, one

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Jean-Jacques Morcrette

APRIL 1990 JEAN-JACQUES MORCRETTE 847Impact of Changes to the Radiation Transfer Parameterizations Plus Cloud Optical. Properties in the ECMWF Model JEAN-JACQUES MORCRETTEEuropean Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, Berkshire, England(Manuscript received 10 July 1989, in final form 18 October 1989) ABSTRACT A new radiation package

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