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Qiongqiong Cai, Guang J. Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou

). Nevertheless, there are still serious deficiencies in simulated MJOs, including more power at higher frequencies, underestimation of the strength of MJO, and failure to capture the seasonality of MJO events ( Zhang and Mu 2005a ; Zhang 2005 ; Kim et al. 2009 ). Observational and modeling studies have demonstrated that shallow convection has a nonnegligible heating and moistening effect on preconditioning the atmosphere for deep convection, and the interaction between deep and shallow convection is

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Cécile Hannay, David L. Williamson, James J. Hack, Jeffrey T. Kiehl, Jerry G. Olson, Stephen A. Klein, Christopher S. Bretherton, and Martin Köhler

general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 2825 – 2838 . Mechoso , C. R. , and Coauthors , 2005 : VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study (VOCALS). VOCALS Science Plan, 42 pp. [Available online at http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals/science_planning/VOCALS-Science-Plan.pdf .] . Moeng , C-H. , and Coauthors , 1996 : Simulation of a stratocumulus-topped planetary boundary layer: Intercomparison among different numerical codes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 261 – 278

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Christopher G. Fletcher and Christophe Cassou

modulating ENSO–NAM teleconnections through changes to the phase and amplitude of extratropical planetary waves. 2. Data and methods a. Model and experimental design The model used in this study is CNRM-CM5, the fifth generation coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM developed by Météo-France and the Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique (CERFACS). Full details of the model formulation are provided in Voldoire et al. (2013) , but, briefly here, the atmospheric component is

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Song-You Hong, Masao Kanamitsu, Jung-Eun Kim, and Myung-Seo Koo

interaction between land and the atmosphere, which results in cooler surface temperatures except over the TP. Over the oceans the diurnal cycle elicits a distinct increase in precipitation by enhancing planetary boundary layer mixing. The diurnal cycle is also found to contribute to the formation of the Tibetan high in the upper troposphere, which consequently influences the East Asian monsoon and the Indian monsoon climate. This study does not address the changes in the planetary-scale system that are

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Mian Xu, Wenshou Tian, Jiankai Zhang, Tao Wang, and Kai Qie

.9°. The BKS region in this study is outlined as the area of 20°–90°E, 65°–85°N. In this study, early winter refers to November and December and late winter refers to the following January and February. Two numerical experiments forced by BKS high- and low-SIC boundary conditions (hereafter HICE and LICE runs for simplicity) are performed using the Specified Chemistry Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model version 4.0 (WACCM-SC). This model is the component of the Community Earth System Model version

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Chris Wilson, Bablu Sinha, and Richard G. Williams

supplied by warm western boundary currents. In contrast, orography is widely viewed as controlling the stationary planetary wave pattern ( Nigam et al. 1988 ; Seager et al. 2002 ), which provides a waveguide for storm-track eddies ( Chang et al. 2002 ). In addition, Seager et al. (2002) argue that ocean heat transport only plays a minor role in controlling the midlatitude air temperature contrast across the North Atlantic. Partly reconciling these views, Held et al. (2002) argue that both surface

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John P. Krasting, Ronald J. Stouffer, Stephen M. Griffies, Robert W. Hallberg, Sergey L. Malyshev, Bonita L. Samuels, and Lori T. Sentman

(ECS) derived from a 50-yr slab model simulation agrees well with the ECS obtained from a 3000-yr simulation of the fully coupled NCAR CCSM3 model. The global-mean SST response between these two NCAR simulations agree within 0.14°C. As the ocean equilibrates in both the slab and coupled model configurations, increases in sensible and latent heat fluxes with the atmosphere balance the increased downward longwave heat flux that increases the SST. Thus, the authors argue that the equilibrium response

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Warren B. White and Shyh-Chin Chen

: Predictability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 6 , 249 – 266 . Horel , J. D. , and J. M. Wallace , 1981 : Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 109 , 813 – 829 . Hoskins , B. J. , and D. Karoly , 1981 : The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci. , 38 , 1179 – 1196 . Jacobs , G. A. , and J

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Xiaoyu Long, Matthew J. Widlansky, Fabian Schloesser, Philip R. Thompson, H. Annamalai, Mark A. Merrifield, and Hyang Yoon

respect to the 1993–2017 monthly mean climatology. The linear trend (1993–2017) has been removed from each variable at each grid location. The Hawaii and Ekman averaging regions (18°–23°N, 160°–154°W and 18°–23°N, 150°–120°W) are indicated by the small and large boxes, respectively. (right) Circles on the regional maps indicate tide gauge locations as in Fig. 2 . Planetary (Rossby) wave theory suggests that sea level anomalies along the eastern Pacific boundary propagate westward into the basin

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Richard Seager and Stephen E. Zebiak

OCTOBER 1995 SEAGER AND ZEBIAK 2497Simulation of Tropical Climate with a Linear Primitive Equation Model* RICHARD $EAGER AND STEPHEN E. ZEBIAKLamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York(Manuscript received 9 December 1994, in final form 24 April 1995) ABSTRACT The tropical climate simulated with a new global atmosphere

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