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Ulrike Wissmeier, Robert Buras, and Bernhard Mayer

inexpensive one-dimensional radiative transfer solvers. The need of a good radiative transfer scheme that considers three-dimensional effects becomes more and more important when going to higher model resolutions, however. Then, the net radiation flux between neighboring model columns can no longer be neglected. A widely employed method for calculating irradiances in NWP or LES models is the so-called independent column approximation (ICA), also called independent pixel approximation (IPA)—in the

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A. K. Betts and W. Ridgway

522 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoL. 45, No. 3Coupling of the Radiative, Convective, and Surface Fluxes over the Equatorial Pacific A. K. BET~West Pawlet, Vermont W. R1DGWAYApplied Research Corp., Landover, Maryland(Manuscript received 20 January 1997, in final form 19 August 1987)ABSTRACt An idealized energy-balance model for a clo~ed tropical circulation is first presented to

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Frederick M. Luther

SEP~E~tnEa1976 FREDERICK M. LUTHER 951Relative Influence of Stratospheric Aerosols on Solar andLongwave Radiative Fluxes for a Tropical Atmosphere~ FREDERICK M. LUTHERLawrence Livermore Laboratory, University of California, Livermore 94550(Manuscript received 14 August 1975, in revised form 20 July 1976)ABSTRACT The solar and longwave radiative effects of a stratospheric aerosol layer

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Claire Radley, Stephan Fueglistaler, and Leo Donner

: GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA). Vol. 1: Assessment. WCRP Rep. 19/2012, 299 pp. [Available online at .] Rayner , N. A. , D. E. Parker , E. B. Horton , C. K. Folland , L. V. Alexander , and D. P. Rowell , 2003 : Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4407 , doi:10.1029/2002JD002670 . Rossow , W

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Feng Zhang, Kun Wu, Jiangnan Li, Quan Yang, Jian-Qi Zhao, and Jian Li

-64S). (third row) As in (top), but with . (second row),(bottom) The absolute errors produced by δ -2DDA, δ -4DDA_E, and δ -4DDA_L. It is interesting to find that the four-stream δ -4DDA can be less accurate than the two-stream δ -2DDA, for upward flux in the case of . Under the clear-sky condition, the distribution of radiative intensity in the atmosphere is relatively isotropic. Because of less angular dependence for δ -2DDA, the accuracy of δ -2DDA could be higher than δ -4DDA

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Michael S. Town, Von P. Walden, and Stephen G. Warren

magnitude of each of the components of the heat budget is therefore important not only for understanding the climate but also for accurately depicting the weather over Antarctica. This paper provides estimates of some key parameters of the Antarctic atmosphere. Measurements of broadband and spectral longwave downwelling radiative fluxes made at the South Pole Station during 2001 are presented. These longwave fluxes dominate the surface heat budget in Antarctica because of the region’s high solar albedo

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Claude Estournel, Raoul Vehil, Daniel Guedalia, Jacques Fontan, and Aimé Druilhet

134JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 22Observations and Modeling of Downward Radiative Fluxes (Solar and Infrared)in Urban/Rural AreasCLAUDE ESTOURNEL, RAOUL VEHIL, DANIEL GUEDALIA, JACQUES FONTAN AND AIM~ DRUILHETLaboratoire de Physique des Aerosols et Echanges Airnosph-riques, Universile Paul Sabatier. 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France(Manuscnpt received IS December 1981, in final form 30 September 1982)ABSTRACTPollutants (gaseous and aerosol) contained in urban atmospheres alter

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I. Schlimme, A. Macke, and J. Reichardt

switch sign depending on ice crystal geometry and size ( Zhang et al. 1999 ). Thus, in contrast to low and midlevel clouds, the microphysical composition of cirrus clouds is an important parameter in determining the sign of the net cloud radiative forcing. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of cirrus cloud variabilities on the solar radiative fluxes. Radiative transfer in the thermal is not addressed here mainly because the effect of cloud microphysics on the thermally emitted

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John T. Suttles, Bruce A. Wielicki, and Sastri Vemury

JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME31Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Fluxes: Validation of ERBE Scanner Inversion Algorithm Using Nimbus-7 ERB Data JOHN T. SUTTLES AND BRUCE A. WIELICKIAtmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia SASTRI VEMURYScientific Management and Applied Research Technologies, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland(Manuscript received 18 December

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T. Zhang, K. Stamnes, and S. A. Bowling

2110 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME9Impact of Clouds on Surface Radiative Fluxes and Snowmelt in the Arctic and Subarctic T. ZHANG, K. STAMNES, AND S. A. BOWLINGGeophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska(Manuscript received 18 September 1995, in final form 26 February 1996)ABSTRACT A comprehensive atmospheric radiative transfer model combined with the surface

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