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Yong Chen, Yong Han, Paul van Delst, and Fuzhong Weng

1. Introduction The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) was developed at the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) ( Weng et al. 2005 ; Han et al. 2006 ; Chen et al. 2008 , 2010 , 2012 ) to simulate the radiances at the top of atmosphere and produce radiance gradients (or Jacobians) for satellite data assimilation and many other remote sensing applications. Since CRTM performs very fast and accurate computations, it has been implemented in the National Centers for

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Heinrich Hoeber

United Kingdom Meteorological Office, Kent et al. (1993) determine themagnitude of radiation errors of the temperature measurement and, hence, of the fluxes of sensible and latentheat derived by means of the bulk formulas. While theinvestigation yields useful quantitative values for theradiation error as function of incident solar radiationand relative wind speed, the conclusions with respectto the heat fluxes are inconsistent and deserve a comment. In the bulk formulas, sensible heat flux Qh and

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Robert G. Ellingson, Hai-Tien Lee, David Yanuk, and Arnold Gruber

factor (i.e., the ratio of the actual flux tothe flux estimated assuming isotropy of the radianceat angle 0). The actual anisotropic factor depends uponthe instantaneous distributions of the radiative properties of the volume sensed by the ERBE instruments.However, the ERBE analysis assumes that L may beassigned a fixed value at a given angle for a particularscene type and latitude. This may lead to OLR errorsof the order of a few percent in extreme cases whenlooking at individual scenes, but the

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Grant Thomas, Richard Cobb, Steven Fiorino, and Michael Hawks

light from the sun through the atmosphere and to the sensor. LEEDR is an atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code that calculates line-by-line (pointwise solutions for specific wavelengths) and spectral band solutions by creating “correlated, physically realizable profiles of meteorological and environmental effects (e.g. gaseous and particle extinction, optical turbulence, and cloud-free line of sight) data” ( Courtney 2015 ). LEEDR was used to ingest volumetric numerical weather

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Walt McKeown and William Asher

1. Introduction Two-thirds of the earth’s surface is an air–water interface. All the heat and gas flowing between the atmosphere and the oceans must pass through this thin boundary. Although turbulent diffusion moves heat and gas efficiently in the bulk of each phase, a thin layer of fluid on the water side with a characteristic depth of at most a few hundred microns controls the transfer velocity of the net air–water fluxes for most gases and heat ( Hasse 1990 ; Jähne et al. 1987 ). When this

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Temple R. Lee, Michael Buban, Edward Dumas, and C. Bruce Baker

northeast of tripod 1 (330 m MSL). Both of these tripods were outfitted with an R. M. Young sonic anemometer, a downward-pointing Apogee infrared temperature sensor, and a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) that was enclosed within an aspirated shield to minimize radiative errors. Sonic anemometer measurements were sampled at 10 Hz and were used to compute sensible heat flux H at 15-min intervals using the eddy covariance method. Samples at 1 Hz from the infrared sensor and PRT were used to compute

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Robert Kurzeja, Malcolm Pendergast, and Eliel Villa-Aleman

coastal zone and inland lakes. Inland lakes have a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric conditions and can easily be instrumented for satellite calibration. They also do not have the swell and large-amplitude waves found in the ocean. On the other hand, the complicated and variable boundary layers over small lakes increase the uncertainty in the calculated heat and momentum fluxes ( Mahrt et al. 1998 ). Most oceanic data have been obtained from extended campaigns from research ships that have

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Lawrence F. Radke and Anthony C. Delany

1. Introduction The Cooperative Atmospheric–Surface Exchange Study in 1999 (CASES99) was an investigation of the dynamics of the stable nocturnal boundary layer, when the longwave radiation flux dominates the energy balance at the surface and has a marked influence upon the duration of the stable condition. The study occurred on the plains of Kansas, to the east of Wichita, and involved multiple investigators and sensing systems. The program objectives and an account of the operational

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Libeesh Lukose and Dibyendu Dutta

. Goyal , S. Paul , J. Sharma , and V. Dadhwal , 2015 : Satellite-based estimation of instantaneous radiative fluxes over continental USA—A case study . J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens. , 43 , 841 – 849 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s12524-015-0449-1 . 10.1007/s12524-015-0449-1 Fridley , J. , 2009 : Downscaling climate over complex terrain: High fine scale (1000 m) spatial variation of near-ground temperatures in a montane forested landscape (Great Smoky Mountains) . J. Appl. Meteor

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L. Eymard, C. Klapisz, and R. Bernard

used in thisstudy). The physical parameterizations include (seeShaw et al. 1987): - boundary layer fluxes dependent on roughnesslength (Charnock formulation for the oceans) and localstability (Monin-Obukhov theory, simplified by Louis1979). - free-atmosphere turbulent fluxes dependent onmixing length and Richardson number. - Kuo ( 1965 ) convective scheme and shallow convection scheme. - full interaction between radiation and clouds (buta full radiative computation is performed only

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