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David A. Lavers, N. Bruce Ingleby, Aneesh C. Subramanian, David S. Richardson, F. Martin Ralph, James D. Doyle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ryan D. Torn, Mark J. Rodwell, Vijay Tallapragada, and Florian Pappenberger

.g., Uttal et al. 2002 ), and cloud processes ( Flamant et al. 2018 ). In January and February 2018, there was an observational campaign called Atmospheric River Reconnaissance (AR Recon) in which research aircraft released dropsondes into atmospheric rivers (ARs; Ralph et al. 2018 ) and other dynamically active regions across the eastern North Pacific Ocean, along with radiosondes from sites in California. ARs are important because they are responsible for much of the water vapor flux across the

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J. C. Dietrich, S. Bunya, J. J. Westerink, B. A. Ebersole, J. M. Smith, J. H. Atkinson, R. Jensen, D. T. Resio, R. A. Luettich, C. Dawson, V. J. Cardone, A. T. Cox, M. D. Powell, H. J. Westerink, and H. J. Roberts

in storm characteristics do not fully explain the significant differences in the resulting storm surges, which were influenced by the geography of their landfall locations. In southeastern Louisiana and Mississippi, where Katrina made landfall, the geography includes a shallow continental shelf, which extends 100–120 km south of the Mississippi–Alabama coastline but only 10–15 km south of the so-called “bird’s foot” of the Mississippi River delta; the Chandeleur and Mississippi Sound Islands

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Erika K. Wise, Connie A. Woodhouse, Gregory J. McCabe, Gregory T. Pederson, and Jeannine-Marie St-Jacques

1. Introduction Described as an “unpredictable river in an unpredictable landscape” ( Galat et al. 2005 , p. 431), the 3726-km-long Missouri River ( Fig. 1 ) flows through a wide variety of climatic, geologic, and topographic zones from its headwaters at the Continental Divide to its confluence with the Mississippi River, traversing parts of the Rocky Mountain, Interior Plains, and Interior Highlands physiographic provinces ( Lettenmaier et al. 1999 ; Galat et al. 2005 ). The Missouri River

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Zbyněk Sokol

1. Introduction Precipitation amount in a river basin is the principal input of hydrologic models. Precipitation inputs, calculated from observations and used in the models, can provide valuable hydrologic forecasts, but they are limited by a short lead time. For longer lead time, a quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is required. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are the basic tools of QPF. Despite significant progress in numerical modeling during the last decades, QPF is one of

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Elizabeth A. Clark, Justin Sheffield, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Bart Nijssen, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction River runoff is an important term in the global land and ocean water balances. On global average, roughly 30%–40% of precipitation falling over land reaches the oceans as river runoff (e.g., Baumgartner and Reichel 1975 ; Trenberth et al. 2007 ). In addition to its role in the global water balance, humans depend on river flows to provide municipal and agricultural water supply, transportation, electricity, recreation, and many other uses. Several recent studies have examined

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Augusto C. V. Getirana, Aaron Boone, Dai Yamazaki, Bertrand Decharme, Fabrice Papa, and Nelly Mognard

climate system variability. Continental surface waters also influence the surface energy balance and feedback effects between the land surface and atmosphere ( Krinner 2003 ; Mohamed et al. 2005 ). They also play an important role on water discharges of large rivers, sediment dynamics ( Dunne et al. 1998 ), and freshwater chemistry (e.g., Melack et al. 2004 ). Finally, wetlands have been shown to have a significant impact on the interannual variability of global methane emissions ( Bousquet et al

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Robert D. Hetland

1. Introduction River plumes are central to a number of important societal oceanographic problems. For example, a toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium spp., is associated with the the Kennebec–Penobscot River plume in the Gulf of Maine ( Franks and Anderson 1992 ). Stratification caused by Mississippi–Atchafalaya outflow prevents ventilation of lower-layer waters, allowing hypoxic conditions to develop on the continental shelf ( Rabalais et al. 1999 ). Nearly one-half of all oceanic carbon

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Michael J. DeFlorio, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, David A. Lavers, F. Martin Ralph, and Frédéric Vitart

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow plumes of strong horizontal water vapor transport that are typically found in the midlatitudes ahead of the cold front of an extratropical cyclone ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Cordeira et al. 2013 ; American Meteorological Society 2017 ). They can intensify downstream precipitation and influence flooding, snowpack, and water availability (e.g., Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 , 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008

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Haidong Pan, Zheng Guo, Yingying Wang, and Xianqing Lv

1. Introduction As one of the most widely used approaches in tidal analysis, harmonic analysis (HA) determines the amplitude and phase of a priori known frequency via a least squares fitting procedure. Usually over 90% of the variance of coastal tidal elevations can be explained by fewer than 150 constituents obtained by HA. However, HA is not suited for many more complex phenomena such as river tides, because it assumes that tides are a statistically stationary phenomenon. It fails when

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Douglas K. Miller, David Hotz, Jessica Winton, and Lukas Stewart

1. Introduction and background The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow and elongated zones of rapid poleward-moving anomalously moist air at low levels originating from the subtropics and located just ahead of the surface cold front in midlatitude cyclones (e.g., Browning and Pardoe 1973 ; Newell et al. 1992 ; Zhu and Newell 1998 ), on precipitation events in the Pigeon River basin (PRB) as observed by a high-elevation rain gauge network

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