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Vicente Barros, Lucas Chamorro, Genaro Coronel, and Julián Baez

1. Introduction The Paraguay River is the most important tributary of the Paraná River and one of the main constituents of La Plata basin, the fifth largest basin in the world. The area of the Paraguay River basin exceeds 1 million km 2 and includes the Pantanal, a huge and flat wetland of 140 000 km 2 ( Fig. 1 ). The Pantanal wetland is a great complex of inundated floodplains. This region, one of the largest wetlands of the world, is widely recognized for its ecological importance and its

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Dinh Thi Lan Anh and Filipe Aires

1. Introduction River discharge (RD) estimation is important for both scientific (e.g., water cycle analysis, land/ocean freshwater exchanges) and operational reasons (e.g., flood risk, water management). Unfortunately, the number of publicly available in situ measurement stations has decreased in recent decades ( Wahl et al. 1995 ), in particular in developing countries. This is a major drawback for hydrology because in addition to being direct, continuous, and potentially very precise

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Robert J. Zamora, Edward P. Clark, Eric Rogers, Michael B. Ek, and Timothy M. Lahmers

1. Introduction This paper presents an extensive look at the 23 July 2008 record flood in the Babocomari River basin located in southeastern Arizona ( Fig. 1 ) from both a meteorological and hydrological perspective. The Babocomari River is a major tributary of the San Pedro River and drains an area of 792 km 2 . The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program ( Ralph et al. 2005 ) instrumented this river basin in May 2008 in collaboration with

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Xiong Zhou, Guohe Huang, Joseph Piwowar, Yurui Fan, Xiuquan Wang, Zoe Li, and Guanhui Cheng

variability of water resources. When linked with RCMs, MHMs can model water resources systems at a fine spatial resolution ( Raje and Krishnan 2012 ). The Athabasca River is the longest undammed river in the Canadian Prairies, and the potential effects of climate change on its hydrological cycles have been implicated for water scarcities, wild fires, flooding, and droughts ( Cheng et al. 2017 ). Further, annual flows of the Athabasca River have been shown to be linked with historic climate conditions

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Ping Lu, James A. Smith, and Ning Lin

; Javier et al. 2010 ; Merz et al. 2008 ). Rainfall structure and evolution can vary substantially from storm to storm, resulting in striking contrasts in the spatial distribution of flood magnitudes over the drainage network. Villarini and Smith (2010) introduced the flood index as the ratio of flood peak discharge at a particular location along a river network to the 10-yr flood discharge at the same location, as a dimensionless representation of flood magnitudes that could be used to examine the

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Ryan J. MacDonald, James M. Byrne, Stefan W. Kienzle, and Robert P. Larson

1. Introduction Mountains play a key role in the global hydrological cycle and are a main source of water for many of the world’s river systems ( Beniston et al. 1997 ). It is expected that climatic change may have a significant impact on mountain snowpack and, subsequently, the snow-derived water supply ( Barnett et al. 2005 ). Water supply on the western prairies of Canada is highly dependent on snowmelt from the east slopes of the Rocky Mountains ( Schindler and Donahue 2006 ). The potential

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Shunjiu Wang, Xinli Zhang, Zhigang Liu, and Deming Wang

, Paoshan et al. (2006) determined rainfall in northern and eastern Taiwan increased on various time scales, but decreased in central and southern Taiwan. Kampata et al. (2008) found there was no evidence of significant trends in the annual rainfall in the headwater of the Zambezi River basin in Zambia by using the cumulative summation and rank-sum tests. Millett et al. (2009) determined that precipitation averaged across the Prairie Pothole Region in North America increased during the past century

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Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas and Sumant Nigam

1. Introduction The transboundary Mekong River winds its way through six countries, with a basin larger than 700 000 km 2 and with more than 60 million people living in it. The Mekong is the longest river in the Indochina Peninsula, with the greater Mekong being one of the most biodiverse habitats in the world, second only to the Amazon in fish biodiversity ( WWF 2017 ). The Mekong basin is shared by six countries: Thailand, Laos, China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar, listed in order of their

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Vincent Häfliger, Eric Martin, Aaron Boone, Florence Habets, Cédric H. David, Pierre-A. Garambois, Hélène Roux, Sophie Ricci, Lucie Berthon, Anthony Thévenin, and Sylvain Biancamaria

1. Introduction Remote sensing from spaceborne platforms is increasingly used for the monitoring of components of the hydrological cycle, including river discharge ( Santos da Silva et al. 2010 ). The surface soil moisture can be observed by the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellites ( Pierdicca et al. 2013 ; Kerr et al. 2010 ; Flores et al. 2012 ). The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite

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F. M. Ralph, S. F. Iacobellis, P. J. Neiman, J. M. Cordeira, J. R. Spackman, D. E. Waliser, G. A. Wick, A. B. White, and C. Fairall

1. Introduction The global atmospheric water budget is a subject of ongoing research. Recent evaluations of global climate model representations of precipitation, evaporation, and moisture transport compared to observed river discharges into oceans ( Trenberth et al. 2011 ) concluded that “their differences reveal outstanding issues with atmospheric models and their biases.” One reason for their differences is that horizontal water vapor transport in climate models is sensitive to grid size (e

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