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Arnold L. Gordon and Alberto R. Piola

JULY 1983 ARNOLD L. GORDON AND ALBERTO R. PIOLA 1293Atlantic Ocean Upper Layer Salinity Budget~ ARNOLD L. GORDON AND ALBERTO R. PIOLA2Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964(Manuscript received 5 August 1982, in final form 9 March 1983) ABSTRACT Production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) transfers upper-layer thermocline water

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Laurence Armi and Walter Zenk

1560 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 14Large Lenses of Highly Saline Mediterranean Water LAURENCE ARMIScripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jo!la, CA 92093WALTER ZENK!nstitut fiir Meereskunde an der Universitdt Kiel. 2500 Kiel 1. Germany(Manuscript received I May 1984, in final form 27 June 1984)ABSTRACT Isolated compact anticyclonic eddies or salt lenses were found in the Canary Basin

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Magnus Hieronymus, Johan Nilsson, and Jonas Nycander

1. Introduction The oceanic temperature 1 T and salinity S distributions result from an interplay between air–sea fluxes, large-scale circulation, and small-scale turbulent mixing. The extreme S – T values are created by the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater ( Speer 1993 ), whereas the turbulent mixing acts to reduce the span of the S – T distribution. The large-scale circulation serves to bring water masses from different locations together, allowing the small-scale mixing to

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Shinya Kouketsu and Ichiro Yasuda

1. Introduction The Kuroshio Extension is an eastward-flowing jet current that appears after the Kuroshio separates from the east coast of Japan near the Boso Peninsula. This region is one of the main formation sites of the salinity minimum that characterizes North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), which is found at depths of 200–800 m in the subtropical gyre ( Yasuda et al. 1996 ; Talley 1997 ; Hiroe et al. 2002 ). Warm saline water is transported into the Kuroshio Extension region by the

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James R. Miller

1976 J A M E S R. M I L L E R 29The Salinity Effect in a Mixed Layer Ocean Model Jam;s R. M~.~R~Goddard Institute For Space Studies, NASA, New York, 3r. Y. 10025(Manuscript received 7 October 1974, in revised form 8 July 1975) ABSTRACT A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extendedby Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of

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Karthik Balaguru, Gregory R. Foltz, L. Ruby Leung, John Kaplan, Wenwei Xu, Nicolas Reul, and Bertrand Chapron

and tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP), metrics for the warmth of the ocean surface and the depth of the warm water reservoir ( Shay et al. 2000 ), respectively, are used to represent the ocean in these models ( Kaplan et al. 2010 , 2015 ). Though SST and TCHP include effects of upper-ocean thermal structure, they do not incorporate salinity impacts on ocean stratification ( Balaguru et al. 2015 ). This leads to the following question: Does salinity play a role in RI? In the western tropical

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Lynne D. Talley

VOLUME 15 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY JUNE 1985Ventilation of the Subtropical North Pacific: The Shallow Salinity Minimum LYNNE D. TALLEYUniversity of California-San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093(Manuscript received 26 October 1984, in final form 5 February 1985)ABSTRACT The shallow salinity minimum of the subtropical North Pacific is shown to be a feature of the ventilated

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Jonathan D. Nash and James N. Moum

1. Introduction Many important inferences have been made from measurements of temperature microstructure during the past 30 years ( Gregg 1987 ). Measurement of salinity microstructure is much more difficult because it requires resolving much smaller scales. In addition, coincident measurements of temperature ( T ) and conductivity ( C ) are required to determine salinity ( S ). Using present sensor technology, it is impossible to coincidently resolve C and T at the submillimeter scales

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Eric S. Posmentier

298 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME7The Generation of Salinity Finestructure by Vertical Diffusion~ F.P~C S. POSMENTIERInsti~ul~ of Ma~ne and Atmospl~d~ $d~n~e~, C~y Uni~ts~y of N~w York, Bronx 10471 23 February 1976 and 24 September 1976ABSTRACT The nonlinear differential equation for the vertical diffusion of salt or heat) Ms ~nitially unstable solutions under conditions of

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Paul A. Conrads and Lisa S. Darby

Changes in the salinity concentration of coastal waters during extreme meteorological conditions of droughts and floods can result in substantial short- and long-term environmental responses. Long-term weather extremes, such as droughts, can have devastating environmental and eco-nomic effects on many societal sectors including water management, energy production, and agricultural crops ( Wilhite 2000 ). In the United States the 2012 drought affected 22 states and cost an estimated $30

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