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J. R. Wang, T. T. Wilheit, and L. A. Chang

-roughened ocean surface, a precision model ofdielectric constant for saline water, and the origin of'the correction terms for the microwave absorptionspectrum in the atmosphere. A reliable sensor capableof making accurate radiometric measurements is a basic requirement. The AMSU is expected to be a betterinstrument than the AMMS in providing well-call,brated data. Acknowledgm~ent. The authors gratefully acknowledge partial funding support from the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. REFERENCESChang

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Daniel Rosenfeld and Ronit Nirel

differential effectswere obtained in the south, but with. lower overall seeding effects (5% in no-dust days and -6% in dust daysof Israel-3). These results are consistent with the physical evidence of high rainwater salinity of continental originand of high ice nuclei concentrations when seeding wasfound to be less effective (Levi and Rosenfeld 1996).h. The southern origin of the desert dust Rainfall in Israel is brought mostly by westerly tosouthwesterly lower-tropospheric winds. The most frequent

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Marshall A. Atwater

-surface layers that extendfrom 500 m below a water surface, 50 cm below a landsurface, to about 2 to 3 km in the atmosphere over ahorizontal area that can range up to several 1000 kma.The basis of the model is the Eulerian conservationequation, given byOXi 0 F OXi'q---t- V. VX~=--~K~(Ri,z)--[+Ai, (1) Ot 0~1.. OF Jfor momentum, heat, water vapor and pollutants inthe atmosphere, heat in the soil, and momentum, heatand salinity for water. All symbols are given in theAppendix. The

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Z. Levin, S. A. Yankofsky, D. Pardes, and N. Magal

-associatedfreezing nuclei active at -10-C or above was approximately equal to the number of cells. Regardless ofidentity, or how cultivated, cells were recovered fromcultures by centrifuging at 5000 x g at 4-C, resuspended in a volume of saline solution (9 g NaCI 1-~)equal to the volume of the original growth medium,again pelleted as previously mentioned, rapidly frozenin an acetone-dry ice mixture, and then sublimated todryness in a refrigerated Leybold lyophilizer at reducedpressure. The dry powder yield per liter of

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Limin Zhao and Fuzhong Weng

temperatures of 89 and 150 GHz at ice cloud bases T B ( z b , μ ) can be estimated using Eq. (13) with AMSU measurements at lower frequencies. However, the assumption was made that the brightness temperatures at lower frequencies are not affected by the presence of ice clouds. Note that the emissivity in Eq. (13) is a function of the surface temperature, wind speed, and salinity over oceans and is computed using a previously developed model ( Klein and Swift 1977 ; Stogryn 1972 ; Holinger 1971

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Jens J. Currie, Pierre J. Goulet, and Andry W. Ratsimandresy

Trans. Energy Convers. , 19 , 400 – 406 . Bhadeshia , H. K. D. H. , 1999 : Neural networks in materials science . ISIJ Int. , 39 , 966 – 979 . Bishop , C. M. , 1996 : Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition. 1st ed. Oxford University Press, 504 pp . Brooks , K. M. , 2005 : The effects of water temperature salinity, and currents on the survival and distribution of the infective copepodid stage of sea lice ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis ) originating on Atlantic salmon farms in the Broughton

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Diandong Ren, David J. Karoly, and Lance M. Leslie

provided by the CGCMs and use it as for a flat surface. The longwave radiation depends weakly on slope steepness and orientation but strongly on elevation. The Bowen ratio estimation suggested in Andreas and Cash (1996) is suitable for a saturated ice/water surface. We adapted this scheme for partition of the net radiation (we did not include the salinity effect, though). 4. Results and discussion After generalizing the effects of slope and orientation, as discussed in section 3 , the base melting

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Marilia M. F. de Oliveira, Nelson Francisco F. Ebecken, Jorge Luiz Fernandes de Oliveira, and Isimar de Azevedo Santos

structures. Interactions between meteorological (atmospheric pressure, wind, sea surface temperature) and oceanic (salinity and deep sea) variables affect the regular tides and modify the sea level conditions in coastal regions, mainly in restricted waters such as bays. Tropical cyclones and extratropical storms are the main cause of storm surges that can produce damage through high waves and sprawling water over large coastal areas in a single storm. The principal factors involved in the generation and

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Leif Enger and Michael Tjernström

saturation value forthat temperature with respect to water with a salinitytypical for the Mediterranean sea. Sensitivity tests withhigher salinity reveals it to be a relatively insensitiveparameter (the salinity of the artificial lake is expectedto increase due to evaporation). The lateral boundaryconditions are "constant inflow-gradient outflow." Thesurface condition for the turbulent energy is taken fromsurface-layer similarity theory for the second-ordermoments involved making it a function of the

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Christian Kummerow, Y. Hong, W. S. Olson, S. Yang, R. F. Adler, J. McCollum, R. Ferraro, G. Petty, D-B. Shin, and T. T. Wilheit

frequencies depends primarily upon the surface temperature. In the current model, the salinity is taken to be constant at 34.5 ppb. The surface roughness is typically related to wind-driven waves and thus is related to the near-surface wind speed. While the effects of temperature and salinity are well understood, the effect of surface roughening is much more uncertain. In this study, the model of Wilheit (1979) is used to compute the ocean emissivity as a function of near-surface wind speed. While this

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