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Jenson V. George, P. N. Vinayachandran, and Anoop A. Nayak

1. Introduction The Arabian Sea (AS) and the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are the western and eastern embayments of the northern Indian Ocean situated at a similar latitude but characterized by intense evaporation and heavy precipitation, respectively ( Shetye et al. 1991 , 1996 ; Shenoi et al. 2002 ; Gordon et al. 2016 ). An excess of evaporation over precipitation in the AS results in higher surface salinity (>35), and heavy rainfall and river runoff in the BoB freshen the surface layer with

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Joseph M. D’Addezio, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Ebenezer S. Nyadjro, and V. S. N. Murty

1. Introduction The northern Indian Ocean (NIO) exhibits a unique dipolar sea surface salinity (SSS) structure with its basin split between the salty Arabian Sea (AS) and the fresher Bay of Bengal (BoB). While both basins share the same latitude band and are affected by the semiannually reversing monsoonal winds, their salinity structures differ greatly. The AS is dominated by higher evaporation and lower precipitation regimes and is the main outflow region for the high salinity waters of both

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Parker MacCready

. Model development Here a mathematical model of tidally averaged, width-averaged estuarine salinity structure in a rectangular channel of varying cross section is developed. The numerical solution to the equations is developed in this section, and approximate analytical solutions are developed in section 4 . The model is tested against observations in section 3 . The model is basically a time-dependent version of the Hansen and Rattray (1965) equations, and I attempt to make it a better

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G. T. Needler and R. A. Heath

J~NUARY1975 G. T. NEEDLER AND R. A. HEATH 173Diffusion Coefficients Calculated from the Mediterranean Salinity Anomaly in the North Atlantic Ocean~ G. T. NEEDLER Atlantic Oceanographic Laboratory, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada R. A. HEATIt New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, Wellington, lgew Zealand (Manuscript received 28 June

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Igor V. Polyakov, Andrey V. Pnyushkov, Robert Rember, Vladimir V. Ivanov, Y.-D. Lenn, Laurie Padman, and Eddy C. Carmack

ice and atmosphere by a cap of fresh, cold surface water bounded below by a strong pycnocline (e.g., Rudels et al. 1996 ) in which salinity increases from near-surface values of 33 or lower to around 34.5 at 150–300-m depth. At the same time, the decrease of AW temperature with increasing distance from Fram Strait implies that AW heat must be lost as the AW spreads. Much of this heat is spread laterally by advection, eddy stirring, or other processes, but some portion is lost upward to the

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L. Armi and N. A. Bray

384 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 12NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEA Standard Analytic Curve of Potential Temperature versus Salinity for the Western North Atlantic~ L. ARMI2 AND N. A. BRAY3Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Woods Hole, MA 025438 December 1981 and 14 January 1982ABSTRACT An algorithm is described for computing salinity as a continuous function of

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Audine Laurian, Alban Lazar, and Gilles Reverdin

1. Introduction A variable called spiciness was introduced three decades ago in order to characterize water masses and intrusions ( Munk 1981 ; Jackett and McDougall 1985 ). Water masses can either be characterized by their temperature and salinity or by their spiciness and density. To a first-order approximation a spiciness anomaly (noted d π ) along a given time-varying surface of constant potential density referenced to the surface pressure (called isopycnal surface and noted as σ ) is a

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Gregory C. Johnson and Kristene E. McTaggart

the results ( section 4 ). 2. Data CTD profile data collected by Argo floats are used in this study. Data collected from 1999 through February 2009 were downloaded from an Argo global data center (GDAC) in February 2009. Delayed-mode quality controlled data (adjusted values) are used where available. Otherwise, real-time quality controlled data (raw values) are used. Only data at pressures where pressure ( P ), temperature ( T  ), and salinity ( S  ) are all flagged as good (Argo quality flag 1

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J. F. T. Saur

OCTOBER 1980 J. F. T. S A U R 1669Surface Salinity and Temperature on the San Francisco-Honolulu RouteJune 1966-December 1970 and January 1972-December 1975 J. F. T. SAURScripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093(Manuscript received 4 January 1979, in final form 8 July 1980)ABSTRACT Time-distance distributions of surface

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Benjamin A. Hodges and David M. Fratantoni

confined to the upper meter ( Price et al. 1986 ; Soloviev and Lukas 1997 ), decaying exponentially with depth ( Halpern and Reed 1976 ). The stabilizing effect of the thermal stratification then inhibits convection and vertical mixing, allowing evaporation to produce a measurable increase in surface salinity ( Soloviev and Lukas 1997 ). The daytime warming and salinification characterizing this low-wind diurnal cycle, as well as the associated enhancement of horizontal thermohaline variability at the

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