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Eric Brun, Vincent Vionnet, Aaron Boone, Bertrand Decharme, Yannick Peings, Rémi Valette, Fatima Karbou, and Samuel Morin

1. Introduction Scientific interest in snow cover dynamics is continuously growing, particularly in relation to climate variability. Indeed, many physical processes controlling the climate system are strongly affected by the presence of snow on the ground. Because of its unique physical properties (high albedo, high emissivity, low thermal conductivity, latent heat sink while melting, and low roughness), the snowpack drastically changes the surface radiative and turbulent fluxes. In the

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Becky Ross and John E. Walsh

OCTOBER 198~ BECKY ROSS AND JOHN E. WALSH 1795Synoptic-Scale Influences of Snow Cover and Sea Ice BECKY ROSS AND JOHN E. WALSHDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801(Manuscript received 18 December 1985, in final form 16 March 1986) ABSTRACT Daily observational data for thirty winters (1951-80) are used to test the hypothesis

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Diana Verseghy, Ross Brown, and Libo Wang

1. Introduction The pivotal role of seasonal snow cover in the climate system has long been recognized. Numerous studies (e.g., Cohen and Rind 1991 ; Yang et al. 2001 ; Gong et al. 2004 ; Fletcher et al. 2009 ) have demonstrated the effect of snow albedo and temperature feedbacks on climate simulations. The relationship between the spring Tibetan snow cover and the strength of the East Asian monsoon is well established (e.g., Seol and Hong 2009 ). The impact of climate change on future

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John Scialdone and Alan Robock

JANUARY 1987 JOHN SCIALDONE AND ALAN ROBOCK 53Comparison of Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Data Sets JOHN SCIALDONE AND ALAN ROBOCKCooperative Institute for Climate Studies, Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742(Manuscript received 18 March 1986, in final form 9 July 1986)ABSTRACT Four Northern Hemisphere snow cover data sets are compared on a weekly basis for the 25-month

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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

.g., Giri et al. 2005 ; Herold et al. 2008 ; McCallum et al. 2006 ). Although these studies made a comprehensive comparison of land cover types, they did not adequately compare water-related land cover types—that is, snow and ice, wetlands, and open water. The studies did find high per-pixel agreements and global total area for snow and ice among the 1-km land cover datasets but they did not examine accuracy and uncertainty for specific geographical features. The per-pixel agreement for wetland areas

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Qin Dahe, Liu Shiyin, and Li Peiji

1. Introduction Snow cover is a vital water resource in western China. The largest rivers of China, such as the Yangtze River, Yellow River, etc., have their headwaters there. Agriculture and animal husbandry rely heavily on snowmelt water to be sustained. Crop failure and harvest have traditionally been tied strictly to the winter snow storage. Spring drought caused by snow scarcity represents potentially the most serious impact to agriculture and the ecosystem. Sometimes it even results in

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Libo Wang, Murray MacKay, Ross Brown, Paul Bartlett, Richard Harvey, and Alexandre Langlois

1. Introduction Surface albedo is the fraction of incident solar energy reflected from the surface and defines the lower boundary for atmospheric radiative transfer ( Rutan et al. 2009 ). Snow has a much higher albedo than other land surface types, explaining why the spatial and temporal variations of snow cover account for most of the variations in surface albedo at the local and hemispheric scales ( Moody et al. 2007 ; Zhou et al. 2003 ). Therefore, accurate simulations of snow cover and

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A. N. Gelfan, J. W. Pomeroy, and L. S. Kuchment

melting in open areas and canopy interception in forested areas reduced snow accumulation such that maximum snow accumulation could be similar between forested and open sites because of these competing processes. The objective of this paper is to develop a physically based, uncalibrated model that comprehensively describes the processes of snow accumulation and melting for open and forested catchments, and to use the model to compare the effect of forest cover on snow accumulation and melt. For the

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Vincent Vionnet, Ingrid Dombrowski-Etchevers, Matthieu Lafaysse, Louis Quéno, Yann Seity, and Eric Bazile

the ground is activated. The simple one-layer snowpack scheme of Douville et al. (1995) is used to simulate the snowpack evolution. The AROME operational system uses a 3-hourly continuous assimilation cycle ( Brousseau et al. 2008 ). Snow depth and snow cover are not assimilated in the surface analysis. Thirty-hour lead time forecasts are issued from the 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC nominal analyses. The simulation domain is a regular 2.5-km grid on a Lambert projection. In operation, model

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David H. Miller

112JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGYVOLUME 13THE INFLUENCE OF SNOW COVER ON LOCAL CLIMATE N GREENLAND By David E. MillerQuartermaster Research and Development Command 1 (Manuscript received 13 April 1955)ABSTRACTStudy of thermal storage in the local environment (landscape and climatologic air) provides an approachto an understanding of surface-created local climates, such as those in snow-covered regions. Such a localclimate, dominated by the snow surface, occurs 40 to 45 per cent of

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