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S. D. Bachman, J. R. Taylor, K. A. Adams, and P. J. Hosegood

are highly spatially variable (e.g., Klocker and Abernathey 2014 ). However, it is unclear how submesoscale activity might vary with the energy of the mesoscale eddy field and complex bottom topography. Rosso et al. (2014 , 2015 ) used a 1/80° regional model of the Southern Ocean to investigate the role of submesoscales in a region of complex bottom topography near the Kerguelen Plateau and identified submesoscales using a high-pass spatial filter with a 1/5° cutoff. Using this method they

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Xia Lin, Xiaoming Zhai, Zhaomin Wang, and David R. Munday

1. Introduction The Southern Hemisphere (SH) surface westerly wind stress plays an instrumental role in driving the Southern Ocean (SO) circulation and the global meridional overturning circulation ( Marshall and Speer 2012 ; Meredith et al. 2012 ; Gent 2016 ), as well as SO temperature changes and carbon uptake ( Le Quéré et al. 2007 ; Gille 2008 ; Wang et al. 2015 ; Jones et al. 2016 ; Wang et al. 2017 ). Since surface wind stress depends nonlinearly on surface wind velocity (e

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Kaylan Randolph, Heidi M. Dierssen, Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen, William M. Balch, Edward C. Monahan, Christopher J. Zappa, Dave T. Drapeau, and Bruce Bowler

baseline and statistical approach for identifying whitecap features in the record, is described in section 3 . Data collected at several stations in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during a wide range of physical forcing and wave-breaking conditions are presented in section 4 . An assessment of the method, including the removal of the baseline and a selection of whitecap records using single- and double-radiometer systems, is presented in section 5a . The whitecap quantities resolved are

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Natalia Ribeiro, Mauricio M. Mata, José Luiz L. de Azevedo, and Mauro Cirano

1. Introduction Among the water properties sampled and analyzed in the oceans, temperature represents the largest part of the available data. That is in part due to the relatively simple and inexpensive measurement methods used. In this sense much of the existing temperature data in the Southern Ocean were measured using expendable bathythermographs (XBT), originally developed for military use during the 1960s but widely deployed for upper-ocean scientific research, especially after the 1970s

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Mitchell K. Kelleher and Kevin M. Grise

1. Introduction Recent studies have shown that many current global climate models (GCMs) and reanalyses have large biases in shortwave cloud radiative effects (CRE) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) over the Southern Ocean ( Trenberth and Fasullo 2010 ; Ceppi et al. 2012 ), potentially limiting the ability of models to project changes to the climate under future anthropogenic forcing. For example, many GCMs indicate a large negative cloud feedback over the Southern Ocean in a warming climate

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Guillaume Maze, Fabio D’Andrea, Alain Colin de Verdière, and Patrice Klein

1. Introduction The Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes are characterized by strong zonal jets in the atmosphere and a strong zonal current in the ocean, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The principal mode of atmospheric variability is the hemispheric seesaw described under different names, such as “zonal wind vacillation” and “high-latitude mode” ( Kidson 1988 ; Hartmann and Lo 1998 ). Following Thompson and Wallace (2000) , we will refer to this mode as the southern annular mode (SAM

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Veronica Tamsitt, Lynne D. Talley, Matthew R. Mazloff, and Ivana Cerovečki

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean component of the global meridional overturning circulation is fundamentally important to climate through air–sea exchange and redistribution of heat, freshwater, carbon, and nutrients (e.g., Sarmiento et al. 2004 ; Ito et al. 2010 ). Westerly winds drive the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), linking the major ocean basins and allowing interbasin exchange of properties. The circumpolar nature of the Southern Ocean and predominately zonal

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Gualtiero Badin and Richard G. Williams

diagnose plausible rates of mode water formation in the North Atlantic from area-averaged density fluxes. In the Southern Ocean, the overturning circulation is part of a residual circulation involving a northward transport of Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water and a southward transport of Upper-Circumpolar Deep Water. In a similar manner to the overturning in a basin, this residual circulation across a channel requires a buoyancy forcing for a steady state to be achieved, as

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Ming Li, Jiping Liu, Zhenzhan Wang, Hui Wang, Zhanhai Zhang, Lin Zhang, and Qinghua Yang

). Therefore, accurate sea surface wind is needed for various applications. This is particularly true in the convectively active Southern Ocean (i.e., the Southern Ocean hosts the climatologically strongest sea surface wind in the world), which drives the deep and vigorous Antarctic Circumpolar Current eastward around the Antarctic continent ( Rintoul et al. 2001 ). These winds push the surface waters away from the Antarctic continent through Ekman transport, creating a massive divergence-driven upwelling

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Emily R. Newsom, Cecilia M. Bitz, Frank O. Bryan, Ryan Abernathey, and Peter R. Gent

critical role in slowing the pace of global surface warming in response to greenhouse gas forcing (e.g., Gregory 2000 ; Held et al. 2010 ; Raper et al. 2002 ; Kostov et al. 2014 ). The deep and abyssal ocean is filled by water masses formed at the high latitudes; deep ocean heat uptake proceeds through the warming and redistribution of these polar-sourced water masses. The deep water mass formed at the Southern Ocean surface, Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), comprises a large fraction of the oldest

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