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Joseph Pedlosky, Wendy Smith, and J. R. Luyten

Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (Manuscript received 29 February 1984, in final form 4 May 1984) ABSTRACT A simple model of the oceanic mixed layer is coupled to a model of the ventilated thermocline. Themodel allows a combination of advection and surface heating to determine the position of the outcrop lines~of the isopycnals. The resulting isopycnal outcrops determine the circulation in the ventilated thermoclinc asin the 1983 study by Luyten, Pedlosky and

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Joseph Pedlosky

DECEMBER 1984 JOSEPH PEDLOSKY 1949On the Circulation of the Warm Water of the Subtropical Gyres~ JOSEPH PEDLOSKYWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543(Manuscript received 11 June 1984, in final form 28 September 1984)ABSTRACT A ventilated thermocline model is used to discuss the circulation of the warm water of the

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Xiaochun Wang, Fei-Fei Jin, and Yuqing Wang

. The equatorial thermocline response shows the spatial features of the very-low-frequency modes described in Jin (2001) , with a nearly zonally uniform thermocline change in the equatorial region and a large meridional scale in the eastern basin. Numerical experiments using a reduced-gravity shallow-water model and an oceanic general circulation model in the Pacific region verify the analytical solutions and further reveal the detailed features of the equatorial thermocline response to the wind

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S. G. Wilson

1. Introduction Achieving a sharp thermocline is important for El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modeling as it has long been believed (e.g., Cane 1992 ) that weak coupled general circulation model (GCM) ENSO variability arises from the diffuse thermocline that is typical of many ocean GCMs. A new equatorial Pacific domain ocean GCM configuration and a new vertical mixing scheme have been developed and shown in Wilson (2000a) to achieve a “sharp” 1 equatorial thermocline and a heat

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R. M. Samelson

1. Introduction In the simplest conceptualizations, the large-scale meridional overturning circulation of the World Ocean may be divided into three components: an abyssal cell associated with the northward flow of Antarctic Bottom Water and subsequent upwelling, mixing, and southward return flow; a middepth cell, involving the southward flow of upper North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and northward return flow of warm intermediate and upper thermocline waters; and the shallow, warm wind

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Hiroyasu Hasumi and Nobuo Suginohara

at the thermocline depths. It is expected that such small vertical diffusivity as used here for the deep ocean causes too weak a circulation. Traditionally, vertical diffusivity has been taken higher for the deep ocean in OGCMs by simply prescribing it as a function of the depth (e.g., Bryan and Lewis 1979 ) or by assuming it to be a function of stability (e.g., Hirst and Cai 1994 ). Nevertheless, we do not adopt depth- or stability-dependent diffusivity. There is some evidence that vertical

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Tomoki Iwakiri and Masahiro Watanabe

. 2014 ; Stein et al. 2014 ; Stuecker et al. 2015 ). Using an ensemble of coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), it has been claimed that the ENSO variability magnitude is inversely correlated with the seasonal cycle amplitude of mean SST across models, although the physical mechanism remains unclear ( Guilyardi 2006 ; Guilyardi et al. 2009 ; An and Choi 2014 ). Furthermore, the role of the seasonal cycle in causing ENSO asymmetry has not been examined using CGCMs. The seasonal cycle in

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Dingming Hu

for experiment 1.Contour interval: 106 m3 s-L Dashed contour lines indicate counterclockwise circulation.water formation at the high latitudes. The transport associated with bottom water formation is about 2 Sv (Sv~ 106 m3 s-~). Due to the low vertical diffusivity,streamlines are sparse in the deep ocean, indicating extremely weak bottom water upwelling. In the uppersubtropical thermocline, streamlines are nearly parallelto the isopycnals, indicating that the flow in the thermocline is highly

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Frank Bryan

solution. The vertical scale of the thermocli~ne is set by thestrength of the Ekman pumping, and there is a multiple gyre circulation in the upper layers. For large verticaldiffusivity, diabatic surface forcing dominates the solution. Vertical diffusion controls the vertical scale of thethermocline, and there is a single large anticyclonic gyre in the upper layers. Both the meridionally and zonallyintegrated overturning circulations are sensitive to the vertical diffusivity, though not to the same

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Zeng-Zhen Hu, Arun Kumar, Hong-Li Ren, Hui Wang, Michelle L’Heureux, and Fei-Fei Jin

Philander (2000 , 2001 ) suggested that mean wind and thermocline depth changes are associated with SST variability changes along the equator. Bejarano and Jin (2008) further documented the dependence of ENSO modes on the equatorial Pacific mean-state changes using a linearized ZC model. Choi et al. (2009) indicated that decadal-varying tropical Pacific SST and thermocline depth anomalies are significantly correlated with decadal variations of the ENSO amplitudes in a coupled general circulation

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