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Sharon E. Nicholson and Andrew R. Lare

138JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOWME 29A Climatonomic Description of the Surface Energy Balance in the Central Sahel.Part II: The Evapoclimatonomy SubmodelSHARON E. NICHOLSON AND ANDREW R. LAREDepartment of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida(Manuscript received 3 April 1989, in final form ii August 1989)ABSTRACT	In Part I of this article we presented a study of the shortwave radiation budget in the West African Sahel,.using Lettau's climatonomy model. In Part 11

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M. Tugrul Yilmaz, Timothy DelSole, and Paul R. Houser

balance constraint in an optimal manner. They have also included precipitation, evaporation, and runoff in their state vector and thereby used the filter to update these quantities. Pan and Wood (2006) showed that the constrained Kalman filter gave estimates not far from the unconstrained filter except that the water imbalance was removed. In this study, it is shown that the constrained Kalman filter can lead to very unrealistic state estimates. Specifically, if individual terms in the water budget

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Robert C. Wills and Tapio Schneider

and dry zones and that the lower-tropospheric stationary-eddy mass flux convergence can be used to gain quantitative insight into the magnitude of wet and dry zones globally. Lower-tropospheric stationary-eddy mass flux convergence leads to vertical motion and vortex stretching, which must be compensated in a steady state by a sink of absolute vorticity. We analyze the zonally anomalous vorticity budget in reanalysis to gain insight into the balances that can sustain this vertical motion. We find

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

. After mass balancing was accomplished, values of CIMC, CONV, ADV, and SFC were calculated. A necessary factor for determining whether the water vapor budget for a region can be closed is estimation of uncertainty for each term. For dropsonde observations, the two main sources of uncertainty are measurement uncertainty and sampling uncertainty (i.e., how representative the dropsonde profile is of the local environmental average). The dropsonde 2-sigma measurement uncertainties for wind velocity

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Wenhui Cui and Ting Fong May Chui

hypothesized that neglecting lateral heat fluxes in the subsurface could contribute to the energy imbalance over the heterogeneous surface and that the level of energy balance closure could be improved if the lateral heat fluxes were considered. 2. Method Field measurements were performed using an eddy covariance system and an array of temperature and water-level sensors. The eddy covariance system was used to obtain the energy budget of a vegetated area, and the sensors were used to capture the

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Colin Plank and Bryan Shuman

wetlands on boreal climate. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4520 . doi:10.1029/2002JD002597 . Kutzbach , J. E. , 1980 : Estimates of past climate at paleolake Chad, North Africa, based on a hydrological and energy balance model. Quat. Res. , 14 , 210 – 223 . Nagarajan , B. , M. K. Yau , and P. H. Schuepp , 2004 : The effects of small water bodies on the atmospheric heat and water budgets over the MacKenzie river basin. Hydrol. Processes , 18 , 913 – 938 . NCDC , 1994 : Time bias

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, H. K. Beaudoing, M. Rodell, W. Olson, B. Lin, S. Kato, C. A. Clayson, E. Wood, J. Sheffield, R. Adler, G. Huffman, M. Bosilovich, G. Gu, F. Robertson, P. R. Houser, D. Chambers, J. S. Famiglietti, E. Fetzer, W. T. Liu, X. Gao, C. A. Schlosser, E. Clark, D. P. Lettenmaier, and K. Hilburn

several recently developed satellite datasets. These datasets are then used to assess the degree to which global and regional energy budgets balance on annual scales in section 3 . An objective optimization approach is introduced in section 4 and used to generate closed global and regional energy budgets over the past decade that satisfy all relevant energy and water cycle constraints. Beyond accounting for the relative accuracy of each dataset, the approach simultaneously imposes energy and water

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Tracy E. Twine, Christopher J. Kucharik, and Jonathan A. Foley

definitions from Trenberth (1997) and the Climate Prediction Center. We are not attempting to evaluate the predictability of water resources as a result of an ENSO event ( Guetter and Georgakakos 1996 ; Maurer and Lettenmaier 2003 ), but we are attempting to quantify the change in particular water budget components during an average ENSO event. The Student’s t test is used to evaluate the statistical significance of the anomalies. a. Observations 1) Climate Because changes in the water balance, snow

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Rui Xin Huang

Recent progress in thermocline theory is linked and demonstrated by a wind-driven three-layer numericalmodel. The dynamic balances of the circulation of the model are studied through examination of potentialvorticity budgets. Potential vorticity balances of two cases of the subcritical state have been calculated over theentire basin and along trajectories. Vorticity budget analysis clearly shows several zones of different dynamicsin the gyre scale cimulation. High potential vorticity water masses in

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Dennis L. Hartmann, Maureen E. Ockert-Bell, and Marc L. Michelsen

overcast. It is suggested that a substantial fraction of the disagreement inlongwave cloud forcing in tropical convective regions is associated with the fact that the ERBE scene identificationdoes not take into account variations in upper-tropospheric water vapor. On a global average basis, low cloudsmake the largest contribution to the net energy balance of the earth, because they cover such a large area andbecause their albedo effect dominates their effect on emitted thermal radiation. High

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