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Andreas Schäfler, Andreas Dörnbrack, Christoph Kiemle, Stephan Rahm, and Martin Wirth

water vapor and the associated latent heat release are thought to be a major weakness in the formulation of current operational NWP models. The diagnosis of “forecast–analysis” differences of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS) by Didone (2006) and Dirren et al. (2003) revealed characteristic patterns of forecast errors on the downstream side of the cold front of the extratropical cyclones. Among the observational errors of the initial

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Jacola Roman, Robert Knuteson, Steve Ackerman, and Hank Revercomb

vapor with varying measurement error . J. Climate , 27 , 8259 – 8275 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00736.1 . Schröder , M. , M. Jonas , R. Lindau , J. Schulz , and K. Fennig , 2013 : The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: Methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 6 , 765 – 775 , doi: 10.5194/amt-6-765-2013 . Simmonds , I. , D. Bi , and P. Hope , 1999 : Atmospheric water vapor flux and its association with

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David Noone

, S. D. , 1988 : Deuterium in water vapour above the atmospheric boundary layer . Tellus , 40B , 134 – 147 . He , H. , and R. B. Smith , 1999a : Stable isotope composition of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer above the forests of New England . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 11 657 – 11 673 . He , H. , and R. B. Smith , 1999b : An advective-diffusive isotopic evaporation-condensation model . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 18 619 – 18 630 . Hoffmann , G. , M. Werner , and

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Katrina S. Virts and Robert A. Houze Jr.

–Dobson Circulation. The TTL is characterized by extremely low temperatures ( Anthes et al. 2008 ; Kim and Son 2012 ), and air ascending through the TTL undergoes freeze drying, producing the low stratospheric water vapor concentrations noted by Brewer (1949) . The mean level of neutral buoyancy (LNB) in convective regions of the tropics lies between 12 and 14 km, just below TTL base ( Takahashi and Luo 2014 ). Divergent outflow from regions of tropical deep convection occurs in the upper troposphere and at TTL

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Brian H. Kahn and João Teixeira

1. Introduction The problem of parameterizing subgrid-scale processes in weather and climate prediction models consists, in generic terms, of estimating the probability density functions (PDFs) for certain model variables (e.g., wind components, temperature, and water vapor) within a model grid box. In particular, cloud parameterizations based on PDFs of moist conserved thermodynamic variables (liquid water potential temperature and total water content) are essential to achieve more realistic

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Michael P. Byrne and Laure Zanna

change? The impacts of aerosols on monsoons are well studied, with suggestions that anthropogenic aerosols may weaken and dry the South and East Asian monsoons ( Bollasina et al. 2011 ; Dong et al. 2019 ). But aside from aerosols, the extent to which the radiative effects of CO 2 , clouds, and water vapor are important for monsoons is unclear. In this study the radiation-locking method is used to isolate the effects of CO 2 forcing and “moist-radiative feedbacks” associated with clouds and water

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Jacola Roman, Robert Knuteson, and Steve Ackerman

measure and predict. Precipitable water vapor (PWV), over the ocean, is highly correlated with SSTs through the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship. A study by Trenberth et al. (2003) found that the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere increases by 7% °C −1 . In addition, another study found that the relative humidity in GCMs remain constant, implying that the PWV will rise with rising air temperatures ( Soden et al. 2005 ). Furthermore, Roman et al. (2012) found a null trend in the PWV in models

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Timothy L. Olander and Christopher S. Velden

large temporal gaps, thereby missing convective structure changes that may be relevant to TC intensity changes. A concept to address this issue using geostationary satellite data was presented by Velden and Olander (1998) , but until recently this potential method has not been explored further. In this study, a technique is developed that builds on the Velden and Olander (1998) concept and highlights the spectral response differences between geostationary infrared window (IRW) and water vapor (WV

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Pedro M. Sousa, Alexandre M. Ramos, Christoph C. Raible, M. Messmer, Ricardo Tomé, Joaquim G. Pinto, and Ricardo M. Trigo

1. Introduction Precipitation variability in western Europe is linked with the intensity and latitudinal location of water vapor transport. In this context, atmospheric rivers (ARs; Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Dettinger et al. 2015 ), that is, a narrow band or corridor of high vertically integrated horizontal water vapor transport (IVT), gain particular relevance. These structures are responsible for local intense moisture convergence ( Dacre et al. 2019 ), associated with the

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B. Adeyemi

distribution of mean monthly precipitable water vapour and annual precipitation efficiency in Nigeria. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol. , 18 , 221 – 238 . Randel , D. L. , T. H. Vonder Haar , M. A. Ringerud , G. L. Stephens , T. J. Greenwald , and C. L. Combs , 1996 : A new global water vapor data set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 1233 – 1246 . Reber , E. E. , and J. R. Swope , 1972 : On the correlation of the total precipitable water in a vertical column and absolute

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