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Ziming Ke and Alexander E. Yankovsky

1. Introduction A full set of barotropic long waves trapped in the coastal ocean over a variable topography includes a zero (fundamental) mode that exists at both subinertial and superinertial frequencies and propagates with the coast on its right (left) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere (hereinafter, we refer to this direction as downstream) (e.g., Huthnance 1975 ). This zero mode resembles a Kelvin wave at lower, near- or subinertial frequencies and an edge wave (Stokes mode) at high

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Lee-Lueng Fu

; Saraceno et al. 2004 ). In the center of the basin there is an intense anticyclonic gyre of barotropic circulation transporting water at a rate of 140 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) around the Zapiola Rise, a sediment ridge at the ocean’s bottom ( Saunders and King 1995 ; de Miranda et al. 1999 ). Superimposed on the gyre are rapidly rotating barotropic waves around the Zapiola Rise with a period close to 25 days ( Fu et al. 2001 ). These dynamical processes of wide-ranging spatial and temporal scales

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Björn Carlsson, Yiannis Papadimitrakis, and Anna Rutgersson

1. Introduction The ocean–atmosphere momentum exchange is important for many atmospheric and oceanic processes. In wave and ocean modeling, as well as in atmospheric modeling, it is essential to model this exchange correctly. The momentum flux or the wind stress, τ , is governed by the roughness of the sea surface, which is usually described by the roughness length z 0 . Over land z 0 is determined by the form and height of more or less solid roughness elements. On the contrary, the sea

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L. Zavala Sansón

1. Introduction This paper examines the properties of subinertial coastal-trapped waves in the ocean according to simple barotropic models. In the absence of stratification, these oscillations are mainly affected by both the earth’s rotation and the shape of the bottom topography. Subinertial topographic waves are also referred to as continental shelf waves, and they travel along the coast with shallow water to the right (left) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. In this sense, the

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James C. McWilliams, Edward Huckle, Junhong Liang, and Peter P. Sullivan

1. Introduction The wind blows and the waves rise and roll on. This is the regime of Langmuir turbulence in the oceanic surface boundary layer (BL), so-called because Langmuir circulations (often recognized by the windrows in the surfactants they cause) are the primary turbulent eddies whose vertical momentum and buoyancy fluxes maintain the mean ageostrophic current and density stratification. Langmuir circulations arise from the instability of wind-driven boundary layer shear in the presence

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Juan M. Restrepo, Jorge M. Ramírez, James C. McWilliams, and Michael Banner

1. Introduction After the wind has been acting on the ocean surface for some time, the amplitude of the fastest growing wave component can reach a critical unstable steepness for which whitecapping occurs (for details and references see Banner and Peregrine 1993 ). We refer to the process of steepening, whitecapping, and changing amplitude as wave breaking. These short-lived, spatiotemporally random events reduce the excess energy in the wave field and modify the momentum of the background

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Adam V. Rydbeck and Tommy G. Jensen

; Maloney and Hartmann 1998 ; Kiladis et al. 2005 ; Benedict and Randall 2007 ). Recent studies have hypothesized that oceanic equatorial waves are responsible for the initiation of select MJO events by locally increasing surface latent and sensible heat fluxes that destabilize the atmosphere for deep convection ( Webber et al. 2010 , 2012a , b ). In addition to confirming the importance of warm SSTs and increased surface latent heat fluxes for MJO convection, we show that oceanic equatorial waves

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Ramsey R. Harcourt and Eric A. D’Asaro

1. Introduction Exchanges of heat, water, momentum, and chemical species between the atmosphere and the ocean interior are mediated by mixing within the upper ocean boundary layer. This study seeks to quantify the role of surface waves in setting the level of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in this layer. This TKE level figures prominently in many ocean boundary layer models, including turbulence closure schemes of Mellor and Yamada (1982) and the K -profle parameterization (KPP; Large et al

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

instability leads to a forward energy cascade. These submesoscale flows are typically restricted to the mixed layer of the ocean because strong forcing from wind and strain by mesoscale features creates fast flows over short length scales [where Ro ~ O (1)]. Convection and wind also make the near-surface stratification very weak (Ri ≲ 1). Since submesoscale flows occur at the upper boundary layer, they coexist with wind and wave forcing. Despite having a partially geostrophically balanced state, these

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Angel Amores and Marta Marcos

1. Introduction Ocean wind-waves are one of the key mechanisms modulating the coastlines as well as a major contributor to coastal hazards. Changes in wind-waves associated with climate variability have been described in the past at different time scales [e.g., Hemer et al. (2010) during recent decades and Gulev et al. (2003) in the last century]. These are relevant to coastal evolution as well as in the deep water, for example for marine offshore systems (such as oil platforms that cannot

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