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Barry H. Lynn, Toby N. Carlson, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Richard Goldberg, Leonard Druyan, Jennifer Cox, Stuart Gaffin, Lily Parshall, and Kevin Civerolo

added some simple modifications to the surface energetics of MM5. The single urban category in the existing 24-category U.S. Geological Survey land cover classification used in MM5 was divided into three classes to account for heterogeneity of urban land cover. They then used bulk approaches to characterize further the urban surface energy budget, such as heat storage, the production of anthropogenic heat, and radiation trapping within the five-layer slab model. The new land surface classification

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Sarah A. Tessendorf, Jeffrey R. French, Katja Friedrich, Bart Geerts, Robert M. Rauber, Roy M. Rasmussen, Lulin Xue, Kyoko Ikeda, Derek R. Blestrud, Melvin L. Kunkel, Shaun Parkinson, Jefferson R. Snider, Joshua Aikins, Spencer Faber, Adam Majewski, Coltin Grasmick, Philip T. Bergmaier, Andrew Janiszeski, Adam Springer, Courtney Weeks, David J. Serke, and Roelof Bruintjes

, comprehensive for their day, to evaluate the scientific basis for weather modification as a tool to increase water supplies. These studies continued through the 1970s and ’80s, and although they provided unparalleled advances in cloud physics understanding, they failed at their ultimate objective. In fact, enhancements in precipitation unambiguously attributable to cloud seeding have been nearly impossible to experimentally demonstrate ( Kerr 1982 ; Garstang et al. 2003 , 2005 ; Reynolds 2015 ). This is

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Susan C. van den Heever and William R. Cotton

., 9–12 . Braham , R. R. , 1976 : Modification of clouds and weather by a large metropolitan area. Preprints, Second WMO Scientific Conf. on Weather Modification , Boulder, CO, WMO, 435–442 . Braham , R. R. , 1977 : University of Chicago contribution to Project METROMEX-11. Cloud Physics Laboratory, Department of Geophysical Science, University of Chicago Tech. Note 50, Final Tech. Rep. to the National Science Foundation, 105 pp . Braham , R. R. , and P. Spyers-Duran , 1974 : Nucleus

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Jinichiro Seto, Kikuro Tomine, Kenji Wakimizu, and Koji Nishiyama

stimulation experiment: Analysis of precipitation on both targets . J. Appl. Meteor. , 29 , 1055 – 1067 . Garstang , M. , R. Bruintjes , R. Serafin , H. Orville , B. Boe , W. Cotton , and J. Warburton , 2004 : Weather modification: Finding common ground . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 85 , 647 – 655 . Guo , X. , X. G. Zheng , and D. Jin , 2006 : A numerical comparison study of cloud seeding by silver iodide and liquid carbon dioxide . Atmos. Res. , 79 , 183 – 226

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Lulin Xue, Xia Chu, Roy Rasmussen, Daniel Breed, and Bart Geerts

eddies now allows us to examine the chain of events associated with glaciogenic seeding and assess seeding effects on the ground with great detail—a situation that was not previously feasible. A wintertime orographic cloud seeding case as part of the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Program (WWMPP; Breed et al. 2014 ) was simulated by the AgI cloud seeding parameterization in LES mode with a grid spacing of 100 m. The first part ( Chu et al. 2014 , hereinafter Part I ) of this two-part series

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Richard R. Weiss and Peter V. Hobbs

222 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUMI~.I4The Use of a Vertically Pointing Pulsed Doppler Radar in Cloud Physics and Weather Modification Studiesx RICHARD R. WEISS AND PETER V. HOBBSDept. of Atmospheric 8d~nces, University of Washington, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received $ March 1974, in revised form 11 November 1974)ABSTRACT It is shown that Doppler radar measurements of the changes

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Edwin L. Crow

1652 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUafl~17Confidence Limits for Seeding Effect in Single-Area Weather Modification Experiments EDWIN L. C~owNational C~nt~r for Atmospheric R~se, arch/ Bould~, CO 80307(Manuscript received 27 July 1977, in final form 5 August 1978)ABSTRACT A recurring problem in single-area randomized seeding experiments has been the assessment of statistical significance

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J. Warner

APRIL 1968 J. W A R N E R 247A Reduction in Rainfall Associated with Smoke from Sugar-Cane Fires- An Inadvertent Weather Modification? J. WARNERDivision of Radiop,bysics, CSIRO, Sydney, A ustralia(Manuscript received 18 August 1967, in revised form 27 November 1967)ABSTRACT An examination of 60 years of rainfall during three months of the cane-harvesting season has

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Hongbin Zhang, Naoki Sato, Takeki Izumi, Keisuke Hanaki, and Toshiya Aramaki

-UC model, and a reference run was performed using the original RAMS model without any modification. A simulation using the RAMS-UC model without anthropogenic heat emission was also performed to investigate the contribution of the urban canopy itself and that of the anthropogenic heat. The performances of the two models were evaluated by comparing their results with data from local observations provided by the Chongqing Weather Bureau. The observation data included temperature, wind direction (16

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