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Robert A. Houze Jr., Peter V. Hobbs, David B. Parsons, and Paul H. Herzegh

equilibrium theory until more data and theoreticalinvestigations are completed.As to whether riming plays a significant role inspectral broadening, we note that our statement,quoted by Passarelli, was meant to be general, notruling out any possible collectional process. Passarelli's contention that riming has no effect onspectral broadening is correct only if the collectionefficiency is a constant.Acknowledgments. This work was supported bythe Experimental Meteorology and Weather Modification Program

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Eugeune J. Aubert

.TlON WITH HEATINGFIG IIC OBSERVED PRECIPITnTIONFIG. 11. Forecast precipitation without heating, with heating,and observed precipitation, 1500 GMT January 8-1500 GMTJanuary 9, 1953.could act to thicken the clouds and thereby yieldlarger precipitation at a later time during the precipitation period.While insufficient forecasts have been made to drawdefinite conclusions concerning the importance of therelease of latent heat to weather forecast improvement,they are sufficient to determine the modification

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Erica Madonna, Sebastian Limbach, Christine Aebi, Hanna Joos, Heini Wernli, and Olivia Martius

stratospheric main body, leading to so-called stratospheric PV streamers ( Appenzeller and Davies 1992 ). Rossby wave breaking (RWB) plays an important role for the upper-level flow as well as for surface weather. It can, for example, assist the formation of atmospheric blocking (e.g., Pelly and Hoskins 2003 ; Altenhoff et al. 2008 ; Masato et al. 2012 ) and reduce the static stability in the midtroposphere and trigger deep tropical convection ( Kiladis and Weickmann 1992 ; Waugh and Funatsu 2003 ). PV

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Sterling C. Gilbert and N. E. LaSeur

and experiences are responsible for thechoice of this hurricane for more detailed investigation.While the study included all phases of its life history,The research reported in this article has been made possiblethrough partial support extended by the Geophysics ResearchDirectorate, Air Force Cambridge Research Center, under Contract AF19(604)-753.Mr. Gilbert's present affiliation: U. S. Weather Bureau.a Editor's note. Hurricane "Flossy" of 1956 appeared subsequentto completion of this study

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A. E. Strong

.REFERENCESAnonymous, 1963: Climatological Data, National Summary. U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Weather Bureau, June, July, August, September issues.Bowen, E. G., 1953: The influence of meteoritic dust on rainfall. Australian. J. Phys. 6, 490497. , 1956a: The relation between rainfall and meteor showers- .L Meteor., 13, 142-151.~, 1956b: A relation between meteor showers and the rainfall of November and December. Tellus, 8, 394-402. . , 1957: Relation between meteor showem and the rainfall of August, September and

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Edmund K. M. Chang and Siwon Song

-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis data (ERA-40). However, the precipitation estimates in the reanalysis data are produced by 6-h forecasts starting from the reanalysis and are not really analyzed data. As such they are expected to be heavily influenced by model physical parameterizations. Hence, we will also examine satellite precipitation estimates, as well as precipitation reported by surface ship observations, in an attempt to validate the ERA-40 precipitation estimates. While one of the goals

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Eugene J. Aubert

, and precipitation. In the weatherstation, such analyzed weather maps portray thecurrent state of the atmosphere and are used as toolsin the preparation of prognoses of the future state ofthe atmosphere.Since the introduction of the electronic computerinto meteorology, both dynamical and statisticalnumerical forecast methods have been concernedwith data at a discrete set of points. In order tosimplify the mathematical-prediction problem, theusual procedure is to obtain values of the meteorological

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Roger Temam and Joseph Tribbia

1. Introduction Although the atmosphere is made of a thin layer of air enveloping the earth, many of the weather prediction simulations are done on limited areas usually around the midlatitude continental regions, for two reasons: on the one hand, the concentration of population and thus the demand in such regions and, on the other hand, one can economically achieve high resolution. A similar situation occurs in oceanography when there is a region of particular interest, for example, coastal

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B. B. Phillips and Gilbert D. Kinzer

chargecarried by cloud droplets within fair-weather cumulusor stratocumulus-type clouds were measured on threedays in June 1956 and on four days in May 1957.Measurements were obtained within cumulus evidencing associated thunderstorm electrical activity onceduring June 1956 and in two separate storms whichoccurred on 19 May 1957.The apparatus employed for the cloud-dropletcharge and size investigation was a modification ofthe type first used by Wells and Gerke [6] in theirinvestigation of charged smoke

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Song-Lak Kang and Kenneth J. Davis

heterogeneity on the fair-weather convective atmospheric boundary layer”. J. Atmos. Sci. , 3226 – 3228 . Weaver , C. P. , and R. Avissar , 2001 : Atmospheric disturbances caused by human modification of the landscape. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 82 , 269 – 281 . Weckwerth , T. M. , and Coauthors , 2004 : An overview of the International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002) and some preliminary highlights. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 85 , 253 – 277 . Yi , C. , K. J. Davis , B. W. Berger , and

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