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  • Acoustic measurements/effects x
  • DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation x
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Aurélie J. Moulin, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

observations used in this study were acquired in October 2011 at 0°, 80.5°E during the Dynamics of the MJO field campaign (DYNAMO; Moum et al. 2014 ) in the equatorial Indian Ocean from a bow-mounted chain of temperature and conductivity sensors ( Table 1 , Fig. 2 ). The ship was also equipped with a full suite of meteorological sensors from which surface heat, momentum, and buoyancy fluxes were derived ( De Szoeke et al. 2015 ). Ancillary measurements include those from a shipboard acoustic Doppler

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

particularly energetic swimmers following the deep scattering layer comprised of zooplankton, which migrate down and out of the sunlit upper layers to avoid predators during the day then up into the euphotic zone to feed at night. The signal is seen in the abrupt increase in turbulent dissipation at all depths above 60 m on the calm days (22 and 23 November) preceding WWB1 ( Fig. 7f ) and confirmed by comparison to volume backscatter estimates from high-frequency (120 kHz) acoustic measurements from a hull

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Zhe Feng, Sally A. McFarlane, Courtney Schumacher, Scott Ellis, Jennifer Comstock, and Nitin Bharadwaj

essentially “hydrometeor” echoes that do not separate between cloud and rain droplets. Instead, hydrometeor echo boundaries are derived using KAZR-ARSCL reflectivity measurements that are designated as “significant detection,” which are defined as signal-to-noise ratio above −18 dB and reflectivity values greater than −40 dB Z . Several other auxiliary datasets at the AMF site are also used in this study. Surface precipitation rate is measured from the Vaisala acoustic rain sensor as part of the Present

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

appreciate the comments from three anonymous reviewers that helped to improve the manuscript. APPENDIX: LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS. AAMP Asian–Australian Monsoon Panel ADCP Acoustic Doppler current profiler AMF2 The second ARM Mobile Facility AMIE ARM–MJO Investigation Experiment ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ASR Atmospheric System Research AXBT Airborne expendable bathythermograph AXCTD Airborne expendable CTD BMKG Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (Meteorological

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

with a subsurface temperature chain deployed by OSU ocean mixing group as described in Moum et al. (2014) . The water interface temperature is computed from the sea-snake adjusted for the effects of the viscous cool skin ( Saunders 1967 ; Fairall et al. 1996a ). Sea surface temperatures were additionally estimated by radiometric measurements of skin temperature (C. Zappa 2014, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, personal communication). These SST estimates filled gaps during the first 11 days of

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