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Simon P. Alexander and Toshitaka Tsuda

1. Introduction The radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) has been developed and used with a variety of radars located around the world for over 20 yr for the purpose of obtaining high-resolution profiles of tropospheric virtual temperature T υ ( Matuura et al. 1986 ; May et al. 1989 ; Tsuda et al. 1994 ). The RASS technique uses acoustic speakers to generate artificial fluctuations whose Doppler velocities are then measured by collocated radar. The T υ measurement can then be obtained

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Rod Frehlich, Yannick Meillier, and Michael L. Jensen

boundary layer ( Lothon et al. 2006 ), the effects of the spatial smoothing can be ignored if the range gate is smaller than the length scale of the turbulence. Measurements of hazardous turbulence conditions around airports are also feasible with careful processing of the lidar data ( Chan 2006 ). However, for low-turbulence conditions, especially the stable boundary layer, careful corrections for the pulse smoothing and the radial velocity estimation error is required for accurate turbulence

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Ronny Engelmann, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Detlef Müller, Egidijus Žeromskis, Dietrich Althausen, and Birgit Wehner

uncertainty in the estimation of the vertical aerosol exchange and the related direct and indirect aerosol effects remains rather high unless these aerosol-related processes are studied in detail based on measurements. Turbulent aerosol fluxes, so far, have been investigated with in situ techniques only. Typically, an ultrasonic anemometer is applied together with a fast particle counter, and fluxes of particle number concentration are derived at a single point, preferably on a tower, in the surface layer

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B. L. Cheong, R. D. Palmer, T-Y. Yu, K-F. Yang, M. W. Hoffman, S. J. Frasier, and F. J. Lopez-Dekker

advantages and disadvantages. 4. Conclusions In the present work, the use of an imaging Doppler radar for the study of wind field inhomogeneity effects on standard DBS measurements has been examined. By design, CRI techniques provide the power and flexibility to be able to view the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere within the pulse volume defined by the transmit beam. If a relatively wide transmit beam is used, it is possible to simultaneously image hundreds of locations where only a few are

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Reginald J. Hill, W. Alan Brewer, and Sara C. Tucker

earth-fixed GPS coordinate system) denotes that the vector’s components are expressed in earth-fixed GPS coordinates at the moment of the measurement t . The velocity measured by a sonic anemometer gives the components of velocity parallel to the acoustic paths of the sonic anemometer, whose paths are fixed relative to the ship’s coordinate system. Thus, the notation V E obs implies that at each time t a rotation is performed to transform the velocity components from the ship’s coordinate

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