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Ren-Chieh Lien and Thomas B. Sanford

vertical wavenumber magnitudes, respectively. Transfer functions F   and G represent effects of horizontal area averaging and contamination for vertical vorticity and horizontal divergence, respectively ( Fig. B1 ). Transfer function F V describes the vertical averaging of velocity measurements and the vertical differencing effect for vertical strain ( Fig. B1 ). Transfer functions for estimates of vertical vorticity and horizontal divergence using measurements around a circle were reported by

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Leif N. Thomas, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Craig M. Lee, Jody M. Klymak, and Andrey Shcherbina

times its own width. Thus, by measuring relative to the float, the effects of both downstream and cross-stream advection were minimized, and changes in frontal properties could be interpreted as temporal changes in a Lagrangian reference frame moving along the axis of the front. 1 The vertical motion of the float within the boundary layer provided estimates of the turbulence intensity and dissipation rate (e.g., section 3c ). The measurements were thus designed to study the properties of boundary

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Andrey Y. Shcherbina, Miles A. Sundermeyer, Eric Kunze, Eric D’Asaro, Gualtiero Badin, Daniel Birch, Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Jörn Callies, Brandy T. Kuebel Cervantes, Mariona Claret, Brian Concannon, Jeffrey Early, Raffaele Ferrari, Louis Goodman, Ramsey R. Harcourt, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, M.-Pascale Lelong, Murray D. Levine, Ren-Chieh Lien, Amala Mahadevan, James C. McWilliams, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Sonaljit Mukherjee, Jonathan D. Nash, Tamay Özgökmen, Stephen D. Pierce, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Roger M. Samelson, Thomas B. Sanford, R. Kipp Shearman, Eric D. Skyllingstad, K. Shafer Smith, Amit Tandon, John R. Taylor, Eugene A. Terray, Leif N. Thomas, and James R. Ledwell

therefore enhances overall variance of tracer gradients. Molecular diffusion then acts to reduce small-scale gradients and effects the ultimate mixing ( Eckart 1948 ; Garrett 2006 ). In practice, all small-scale processes not resolved in a particular numerical or analytic framework (e.g., Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) are often lumped into mixing with the understanding that it may include unresolved stirring as well. Within the strongly stratified ocean interior, a clear distinction can be

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E. Kunze, J. M. Klymak, R.-C. Lien, R. Ferrari, C. M. Lee, M. A. Sundermeyer, and L. Goodman

1. Introduction Submesoscale stirring facilitates the cascade of water-mass and other tracer variances from O (100) km scales associated with the mesoscale eddy field to small scales and eventual eradication by molecular mixing ( Stern 1975 ). Finescale temperature anomalies T′ will also influence acoustic propagation. Passive tracers such as water-mass anomalies on isopycnals are not dynamically constrained by any length scale or balance considerations, and so will eventually cascade to

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Daniel B. Whitt, Leif N. Thomas, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, and Eric A. D’Asaro

global class research vessels, R/V Knorr and R/V Atlantis , traveling at approximately 8 kt (1 kt = 0.51 m s −1 ). Both ships were equipped with two shipboard-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). A 300-kHz Teledyne RDI Workhorse sampled the top 100–150 m with 4-m vertical resolution, while a 75-kHz Teledyne RDI Ocean Surveyor surveyed the top 500–600 m with 8-m vertical resolution. In addition, the R/V Knorr was equipped with a towed MacArtney TRIAXUS that undulated between the

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Leif N. Thomas and Callum J. Shakespeare

) that freefalls at approximately 3 m s −1 and is returned to the surface by a winch. Casts to 200 m are recorded approximately every 800 m as the ship steams at 8 knots (kt; 1 kt = 0.51 m s −1 ), and only downcasts are used. The casts were made with nominally 1-km resolution in the horizontal and less than 2 m in the vertical. Velocity measurements were made with both 300- and 75-kHz underway acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). Vertical sampling of the ADCPs spanned the range between 15 and

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