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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

model uses a time-split small step for acoustic modes. Table 1 summarizes the major simulations that are carried out for this study. The baseline simulation of the observed storm case is referred to as “UlandAero” in which both urban land and anthropogenic aerosol effects are considered. Based on UlandAero, several sensitivity tests are performed to investigate the combined and individual effects of urban land and anthropogenic aerosol. In No_UlandAero, the urban land surface is replaced by the

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Tammy M. Weckwerth, Kristy J. Weber, David D. Turner, and Scott M. Spuler

’s 449-MHz wind profiler during PECAN to obtain vertical moisture flux profiles. Flux profiles were previously calculated using collocated DIAL and Doppler lidar or the radar–radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) by Senff et al. (1994) , Wulfmeyer (1999) , and Linné et al. (2007) . A further application would be to utilize the DIAL’s vertical water vapor variance estimates along with an ancillary surface flux measurement and the top-down and bottom-up diffusion concept (e.g., Wyngaard and Brost

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David B. Parsons, Kevin R. Haghi, Kelton T. Halbert, Blake Elmer, and Junhong Wang

disturbance. In the interpretation of our results, the reader should be aware that the derived displacement heights are subject to this assumption. This method of inferring ascent from displacement of scattering layers was used, since the upward displacements could not be obtained from integrating the vertical air motions over time, as the MAPR wind measurements were interrupted with 5 min of radio acoustic sounding system measurements (e.g., Riddle et al. 1996 ) every 30 min. In addition, as stated

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Bart Geerts, David Parsons, Conrad L. Ziegler, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Michael I. Biggerstaff, Richard D. Clark, Michael C. Coniglio, Belay B. Demoz, Richard A. Ferrare, William A. Gallus Jr., Kevin Haghi, John M. Hanesiak, Petra M. Klein, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen Kosiba, Greg M. McFarquhar, James A. Moore, Amin R. Nehrir, Matthew D. Parker, James O. Pinto, Robert M. Rauber, Russ S. Schumacher, David D. Turner, Qing Wang, Xuguang Wang, Zhien Wang, and Joshua Wurman

in some cases also by Doppler lidars. Some PISA units also included a ceilometer, disdrometer, eddy correlation flux probes, an acoustic sodar, and tethersondes. One MP also had an X-band profiling Doppler radar. Table 1. The PISA network. While the four MPs were mostly stationary during IOPs, several MM weather vehicles plus three MG radiosonde launch vehicles operated both nearby and within the target weather during IOPs. A total of 1,439 radiosondes were released in PECAN. One fixed and up to

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