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estimates of climate sensitivity. Together they control the radiative forcing that drives some of the key feedbacks of the global climate system. Recent satellite measurements have revealed the magnitude of the effects of clouds on solar and infrared radiation ( Ramanathan et al. 1989 ). The measurements indicate that the global effects of clouds are large. The size of these effects is important in the following sense. Clouds affect both the incoming (solar) and outgoing (infrared) radiation in the

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

profile measurements of meteorological variables associated with radiative transfer. These include in situ measurements from balloonborne sensors or aircraft. The program also considered remote sensors, such as Raman lidar, differential absorption lidar, and microwave radiometry for water vapor and radio acoustic soundings for winds and temperature critical, with the idea that these remote sensors would ultimately replace the need to launch radiosondes ( Turner et al. 2016a , chapter 18). Calibration

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D. L. Sisterson, R. A. Peppler, T. S. Cress, P. J. Lamb, and D. D. Turner

profilers (RWPs) with radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) units. The RWPs are able to provide profiles of wind, but when the RASS units were activated, the radars tracked the propagating speed of the sound wave, thereby providing a direct measurement of the virtual temperature profile. Two frequencies were envisioned: one at 915 MHz, which was suitable for low-altitude profiling, and one at 50 MHz for profiling in the middle-to-upper troposphere. These sound waves emitted by the two units sounded like

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Robert G. Ellingson, Robert D. Cess, and Gerald L. Potter

concentration of trace gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CO, and Freons F11 and F12) near the surface, and vertical profiles of O 3 using ozonesondes ( Ellingson and Wiscombe 1996 ). The remote sensing measurements included water vapor profiles with a calibrated Raman lidar operated by Harvey Melfi, total column O 3 with a Dobson spectrometer, and vertical profiles of virtual temperature with a Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS). The experiment benefited greatly from the deployment of a Millimeter Cloud

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

mechanically sensed and averaged both speed and direction, went into service before 1910. The first shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used in the early 1980s ( Regier 1982 ). Energetic creativity has kept ship measurements modern and productive, and a growing international research fleet made long hydrographic transects the basis for understanding large-scale ocean circulation ( Wüst 1964 ). This chapter is divided into nine sections. Several address specific classes of sensors and

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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

collision–coalescence, aggregation, and ice multiplication (adapted from Tomita 2008 ). In this chapter, snow measurements and microphysics are provided in section 3 . The cloud microphysics are given in section 4 . Then snow prediction issues based on various numerical models are summarized. Section 6 focuses on precipitation efficiency calculation and related issues. Snow precipitation’s effects on weather, climate, and society are analyzed in section 7 . Sections 8 and 9 summarize the

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E. J. Mlawer and D. D. Turner

observations was the organization of the Spectral Radiation Experiment (SPECTRE; Ellingson and Wiscombe 1996 ; Ellingson et al. 2016 , chapter 1). This one-month field experiment deployed several infrared interferometers to Coffeyville, Kansas, to measure the downwelling infrared spectral radiance along with a range of sensors, both in situ (e.g., radiosonde, flask measurements of trace gases like carbon dioxide and methane, etc.) and remote (e.g., Raman lidar, Radio Acoustic Sounding System, cloud radar

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D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and R. A. Ferrare

1. Introduction From the earliest days of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, measurements of water vapor profiles at high temporal and vertical resolution were deemed to be critical for both the radiative transfer and cloud processes studies that the ARM Program planned to undertake ( DOE 1990 ). The dream of the ARM Program founders was that ground-based remote sensors would measure these profiles routinely, and that the program would be able to move away from the routine

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

scales affects the Earth system and combines with internal forcings—including anthropogenic changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols—and natural modes such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and volcanic forcing to define past, present, and future climates. Understanding these effects requires continuous measurements of total and spectrally resolved solar irradiance that meet the stringent requirements of climate-quality accuracy and stability over time. Early surface-based measurements, such as

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

and blue values are negative. Intense structure in the Southern Ocean is an indicator of the strong topographic effects and the generally distinct physics of that region. The strong (ageostrophic) divergence near the equator is also conspicuous in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The basic features of the circulation in the Southern Ocean had been identified as early as the mid-1930s ( Sverdrup 1933 ; Deacon 1937 ) from hydrographic measurements collected primarily during the Challenger (1872

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