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T. J. Immel and R. W. Eastes

above 300 km. Simultaneously, ICON makes in situ plasma density and 3D velocity measurements (at 575 km, the satellite’s target altitude) using an ion velocity meter. By the design of the mission, these measurements are often connected by Earth’s magnetic field, where near the magnetic equator a magnetic field line at the spacecraft can be followed directly down to the region of the remote measurement. Given the high electrical conductivity in this region, the electric potential that is, in part

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Roy Rasmussen, Bruce Baker, John Kochendorfer, Tilden Meyers, Scott Landolt, Alexandre P. Fischer, Jenny Black, Julie M. Thériault, Paul Kucera, David Gochis, Craig Smith, Rodica Nitu, Mark Hall, Kyoko Ikeda, and Ethan Gutmann

precipitation gauges in operation at the test bed. Table 2. Typical precipitation gauge direct current power usage. Heaters are controlled to maintain the inlet temperature between 2° and 3°C when the air temperature is between −5° and 5°C, and precipitation is indicated by a wetness sensor. These measures help reduce power consumption, and they also prevent chimney effects and evaporation in the throat of the gauge caused by overheating. The primary ancillary measurements included sonic temperature and

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Julie K. Lundquist, James M. Wilczak, Ryan Ashton, Laura Bianco, W. Alan Brewer, Aditya Choukulkar, Andrew Clifton, Mithu Debnath, Ruben Delgado, Katja Friedrich, Scott Gunter, Armita Hamidi, Giacomo Valerio Iungo, Aleya Kaushik, Branko Kosović, Patrick Langan, Adam Lass, Evan Lavin, Joseph C.-Y. Lee, Katherine L. McCaffrey, Rob K. Newsom, David C. Noone, Steven P. Oncley, Paul T. Quelet, Scott P. Sandberg, John L. Schroeder, William J. Shaw, Lynn Sparling, Clara St. Martin, Alexandra St. Pe, Edward Strobach, Ken Tay, Brian J. Vanderwende, Ann Weickmann, Daniel Wolfe, and Rochelle Worsnop

. Microwave radiometers and radio acoustic sounding systems. Microwave radiometers (MWRs) provide automated, regular measurements of temperature and moisture structure up to 10 km in the atmosphere ( Ware et al. 2003 ; Bianco et al. 2005 ; Cimini et al. 2011 ; Friedrich et al. 2012 ). These instruments observe atmospheric brightness temperature and apply radiative transfer equations and neural network retrievals in order to estimate profiles of temperature, liquid water, and humidity, as well as

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Ralph A. Kahn, Tim A. Berkoff, Charles Brock, Gao Chen, Richard A. Ferrare, Steven Ghan, Thomas F. Hansico, Dean A. Hegg, J. Vanderlei Martins, Cameron S. McNaughton, Daniel M. Murphy, John A. Ogren, Joyce E. Penner, Peter Pilewskie, John H. Seinfeld, and Douglas R. Worsnop

SAM-CAAM aims to characterize particle properties statistically with systematic, aircraft in situ measurements of major aerosol air masses, to refine satellite data products and to improve climate and air quality modeling. Since 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports have highlighted, as leading uncertainties in understanding Earth’s climate, the direct impact of airborne particles on the planetary energy balance and the indirect effects they have on

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C. R. Wood, L. Järvi, R. D. Kouznetsov, A. Nordbo, S. Joffre, A. Drebs, T. Vihma, A. Hirsikko, I. Suomi, C. Fortelius, E. O'Connor, D. Moiseev, S. Haapanala, J. Moilanen, M. Kangas, A. Karppinen, T. Vesala, and J. Kukkonen

: Evaluation of the town energy balance model in cold and snowy conditions during the Montreal Urban Snow Experiment 2005 . J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 49 , 346 – 362 . Lowry , W. P. , 1977 : Empirical estimation of urban effects on climate: A problem analysis . J. Appl. Meteor. , 16 , 129 – 135 . Mårtensson , E. M. , E. D. Nilsson , G. Buzorius , and C. Johansson , 2006 : Eddy covariance measurements and parameterisation of traffic related particle emissions in an urban environment

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Amala Mahadevan, Ananda Pascual, Daniel L. Rudnick, Simón Ruiz, Joaquín Tintoré, and Eric D’Asaro

–June, and a relatively deeper mixed layer, with extremely strong surface wind forcing in March–April. The measurements consisted of two components: Eulerian and Lagrangian. In 2018, an array of three gliders repeatedly crossed the Almeria–Oran Front for 2.5 months, measuring temperature, salinity, velocity, chlorophyll, and acoustic backscatter. The array resolved the three-dimensional, time-evolving mesoscale structure with the goal of diagnosing vertical velocity with the quasigeostrophic Omega

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A. C. P. Oude Nijhuis, L. P. Thobois, F. Barbaresco, S. De Haan, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, D. Kovalev, O. A. Krasnov, D. Vanhoenacker-Janvier, R. Wilson, and A. G. Yarovoy

operating at 9.42 GHz ( Fig. 1c ). A parabolic-offset antenna, with a gain of 40 decibels-isotropic (dBi) and beamwidth of 1.9°, is used to minimize the effects of secondary beams and ground clutter. This radar system is primarily dedicated to measurements within urban areas. The measurements were obtained continuously along the vertical direction, with a time resolution of ∼6 s and a range resolution of 22.5 m, for heights ranging from 70 to 720 m. The CURIE radar provides measurements of the first

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Kyung-Ja Ha, SungHyun Nam, Jin-Yong Jeong, Il-Ju Moon, Meehye Lee, Junghee Yun, Chan Joo Jang, Yong Sun Kim, Do-Seong Byun, Ki-Young Heo, and Jae-Seol Shim

ongoing as of November 2018. Scientists can attach their own sensors to those of the KORS and conduct investigations of ocean processes at or near the stations. The KORS have wet laboratories useful for biogeochemical measurements and facilities for staying for several days without supplies. Fig . 1. Location of the Korea ocean research stations in the Yellow and East China Seas. The main purposes of these KORS are for improving comprehensive oceanic and weather observations, providing core scientific

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Daniel E. Wolfe and R. J. Lataitis

sensing systems spanning radar, lidar, acoustic sounder (sodar), and related technologies. The BAO also hosted solar radiation and greenhouse gas baseline measurements used as part of global networks. The following article is a brief description of the BAO and its nearly 40-yr history, including some of the key studies and their findings that might not have been possible if not for this unique facility. Lessons learned from this research facility can be used to help guide and facilitate the evolution

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Brian J. Butterworth, Ankur R. Desai, Stefan Metzger, Philip A. Townsend, Mark D. Schwartz, Grant W. Petty, Matthias Mauder, Hannes Vogelmann, Christian G. Andresen, Travis J. Augustine, Timothy H. Bertram, William O. J. Brown, Michael Buban, Patricia Cleary, David J. Durden, Christopher R. Florian, Trevor J. Iglinski, Eric L. Kruger, Kathleen Lantz, Temple R. Lee, Tilden P. Meyers, James K. Mineau, Erik R. Olson, Steven P. Oncley, Sreenath Paleri, Rosalyn A. Pertzborn, Claire Pettersen, David M. Plummer, Laura D. Riihimaki, Eliceo Ruiz Guzman, Joseph Sedlar, Elizabeth N. Smith, Johannes Speidel, Paul C. Stoy, Matthias Sühring, Jonathan E. Thom, David D. Turner, Michael P. Vermeuel, Timothy J. Wagner, Zhien Wang, Luise Wanner, Loren D. White, James M. Wilczak, Daniel B. Wright, and Ting Zheng

effects as well as other data products such as fractional sky cover ( Long et al. 2006 ; Dürr and Philipona 2004 ) and cloud optical depth ( Barnard and Long 2004 ; Niple et al. 2016 ) are calculated. Measurements of cloud properties will allow us to quantify their impacts on the radiative and turbulent heat fluxes to better understand the two-way coupling between cloud–radiative interactions and boundary layer evolution, and to investigate the effect on EC nonclosure. A smaller suite of radiation

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