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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

contribution to the pelagic ocean mixing. Observational support comes from tidally induced fortnightly and monthly temperature variations in the Indonesian Seas ( Ffield and Gordon 1996 ) and from measurements of ocean microstructure in the deep Brazil Basin revealing mixing over topography with enhanced intensity at spring over neap tides ( Polzin et al. 1995 , 1997 ; Ledwell et al. 2000 ). The Hawaii Ocean-Mixing Experiment (HOME), a major experiment along the Hawaiian Island chain dedicated to tidal

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Peter Huybers, Geoffrey Gebbie, and Olivier Marchal

by geostrophy or a radioactive tracer is needed to constrain rates of flow. Examples of paleoceanographic observations able to clock the rate of flow include measurements of the difference in 14 C radioactivity between surface and bottom-dwelling foraminifera species (e.g., Adkins and Boyle 1997 ; Sikes et al. 2000 ; Keigwin 2004 ). Another tracer that may possibly inform about rates of flow in past oceans is the 231 Pa/ 230 Th ratio of the bulk sediment ( Yu et al. 1996 ; Marchal et al

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

controls . They each have associated uncertainties that can be significant. The results of an OGCM are sensitive to changes in all of these fields and parameters (e.g., Bryan 1987 ; Losch et al. 2004 ; Marsland and Wolff 2001 ; Simmons et al. 2004 ). Forcing fields, initial conditions, and parameters are derived either from measurements, reanalysis data products, estimates by different models, or, if there is no information available at all, from tuning exercises such that the resulting circulation

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