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William D. Collins, Junyi Wang, Jeffrey T. Kiehl, Guang J. Zhang, Daniel I. Cooper, and William E. Eichinger

test coefficients with the C e derived for the buoy observations for the same surface wind speeds yields the effects on C e of different static stability in the model and observations. It is found (not shown here) that the test values C e are almost identical to the C e derived from the buoy measurements. This suggests that the differences in the buoy and model exchange coefficients shown in Fig. 4 are caused mainly by differences in the bulk formula for C e . To estimate the effect of

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C. W. Fairall, J. E. Hare, and J. B. Snider

form 26 January 1990)ABSTRACT As part of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment (FIRE), a surface meteorology and shortwave/longwave irradiance station was operated in a marine stratocumulus regime on thenorthwest tip of San Nicolas Island off the coast of Southern California. Measurements were taken from Marchthrough October 1987, including a FIRE Intensive Field Operation (IFO) held in July. Algorithms were developedto use the longwave irradiance data to

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Marshall G. Bartlett, David S. Chapman, and Robert N. Harris

precisely, we must account for the effects of heat diffusion in the subsurface observations. 4. Ground surface temperatures at EPO If we could measure the surface ground temperature directly, the effects of phase lag and attenuation associated with heat diffusion would be eliminated. Direct measurement of the ground “skin” temperature, however, is difficult because any measuring device on the surface disrupts the thermal properties of the surface and therefore the measurement itself. Although direct

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T. Kanzow, S. A. Cunningham, W. E. Johns, J. J-M. Hirschi, J. Marotzke, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, M. P. Chidichimo, C. Atkinson, L. M. Beal, H. L. Bryden, and J. Collins

drag coefficient). We consider this estimate to be rather conservative as (i) it amounts to 15% of the observed time mean of T EK and (ii) rms differences in T EK between instantaneous values from QuikSCAT and the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis amount to 0.5 Sv rms. The instantaneous error in T WBW yields 0.4 Sv rms (including possible mean biases), based on comparisons between lowered acoustic Doppler and the moored current measurements at the western boundary for T WBW . The 4-yr-mean bias of T WBW

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Judith A. Curry, Julie L. Schramm, William B. Rossow, and David Randall

albedos. Although the quantitative agreement of cloud forcing isbetter in wintertime, which is dominated by LW fluxes,the ISCCP results suggest that clouds decrease slightlythe LW cooling. The differences between the two results highlight the need for morn accurate measurements of the properties of the atmosphere, surface, andclouds in the Arctic, but also illustrate how small thecloud effects are since the assumed cloud properties,particularly cloud cover and optical thickness, are verydifferent in

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Jeremy P. Grist and Simon A. Josey

have found that this has only a minor impact on the required adjustments (see section 4b ). Considerable progress has been made in the determination of the ocean heat transport as a result of WOCE with, for example, widespread use of acoustic Doppler current profile (ADCP) instruments for improved determination of velocity and current meter arrays, on a number of sections, to obtain accurate measurements of the western boundary currents ( Bryden and Imawaki 2001 ). However, despite this progress

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Louis St. Laurent and Harper Simmons

of turbulent diffusivities based on measurements from standard nonmicrostructure survey instrumentation, such as conductivity–temperature–depth systems (CTDs) and lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (LADCPs) now widely in use ( Polzin et al. 2002 ). Mauritzen et al. (2002) applied a density finestructure parameterization to a hydrographic section along 11°N in the Atlantic, inferring diffusivities of O (1–10) × 10 −4 m 2 s −1 in the deep and bottom water above the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

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Mathieu Barrere, Florent Domine, Maria Belke-Brea, and Denis Sarrazin

and found that shrubs reduced the density and thermal conductivity of the snow by limiting its compaction and enhancing metamorphism and depth hoar formation. All these effects significantly increased the insulating effect of the snowpack. These studies therefore suggest that shrubs limit soil winter cooling because they enhance the accumulation of snow with lower thermal conductivity. Warmer soil temperatures favor nutrient recycling ( Saccone et al. 2013 ), which enhances vegetation growth; this

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Dana E. Lane, Kristen Goris, and Richard C. J. Somerville

radiative properties of boundary layer stratiform clouds deduced from ground-based measurements. J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 23829 – 23843 . Ellingson , R. G. , 1982 : On the effects of cumulus dimensions on longwave irradiance and heating rate calculations. J. Atmos. Sci. , 39 , 886 – 896 . Fenn , R. W. , and Coauthors . 1985 : Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere. Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, Ed., Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 181

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Debra Tillinger and Arnold L. Gordon

January 2004 to December 2006 as part of the International Nusantara Stratification and Transport (INSTANT) program ( Gordon et al. 2008 ; Sprintall et al. 2004 ). Mooring arrays are expensive to maintain; thus, there have been efforts to calculate at least part of the ITF from other readily available data, either remote sensing measurements ( Potemra et al. 1997 ) or in situ ocean measurements ( Meyers 1996 ). The ITF can be estimated using interocean pressure gradients, which are usually described

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