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Michael Garstang, David R. Fitzjarrald, Kurt Fristrup, and Conrad Brain

distance, has broad implications for the study of animal behavior and ecology ( Payne et al. 2003 ; McComb et al. 2003 ; Langbauer 2000 ). Decisive demonstration that animals adapt calling activity to propagation conditions requires a cross-disciplinary field experiment that is costly and complicated. Animals must be tracked accurately, a comprehensive record of acoustical activity must be obtained, and atmospheric measurements must be collected that can support accurate acoustical models. A pilot

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Gian Villamil-Otero, Ryan Meiszberg, Jennifer S. Haase, Ki-Hong Min, Mark R. Jury, and John J. Braun

the horizontal flow. The gusts were small (0.2 m s −1 ) at night but increased rapidly in the 200-m layer through midday as the sea-breeze front passed (0.7 m s −1 ). Thermal mixing (0.4 m s −1 ) continued past sunset and gradually declined. A feature of the acoustic sounder cross sections is the variability of directions at the onset of the sea breeze and the sharp resumption of trade winds after 1500 LST. Figure 6. Acoustic sounder measurements at Mayaguez for the 26 Mar 2011 sea breeze

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Justin E. Bagley, Ankur R. Desai, Paul C. West, and Jonathan A. Foley

located within the southern study area (~53.8°N, 105.27°W). This site was somewhat unique in the BOREAS experiment because of the existence of relatively continuous long-term z i observations via a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), which was deployed from 21 May through 20 September 1994 in conjunction with flux tower measurements that provided surface flux observations ( Wilczak 1999 ). Combined, these observations provided us with a long continuous dataset that was suitable for model

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

( Sergienko 2010 ; Sergienko 2013 ; Bassis et al. 2008 ; Bromirski et al. 2010 ). Sergienko ( Sergienko 2010 ) established a theory of normal modes based on an elastic ice-shelf assumption and explained how the flexural-gravity waves depend on the coupling between the elastic ice shelf and the underlying ocean flow. Practical applications remain uncommon. Quantifying the wave effects on ice-shelf fatigue is possible from Equation (8) . From Equation (8) , tidal fluctuations on time scales much

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Mark R. Jury

in stable layers for feeding. Retention of eggs and larvae over the shelf is important to prevent advective losses into the low nutrient zone offshore. In this regard, wind-induced Ekman transport and subsurface currents that conspire to retain eggs and larvae over the shelf with minimal export are beneficial. Although these concepts aid our understanding of physical influences on upwelling ecosystems, direct measurements are rare. Monthly ½°-resolution ocean reanalysis products that make use of

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