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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

considered here for our analysis of SSH but are reported elsewhere in a study of the deep structure of mesoscale eddies ( Andres et al. 2019 ). For our study, PIESs’ bottom pressure and acoustic travel time signals provide information about mass-loading and steric changes in the overlying water column. Processing of these p and τ measurements follows established procedures and is outlined in the appendix . Fig . 3. Schematic of a CPIES (left side) and a PIES (right side). A C/PIES detects each 12

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Gunnar Voet, Matthew H. Alford, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, and Jonathan D. Nash

waves is a pathway for energy and momentum in the horizontal and vertical. Only where the waves break is energy dissipated and momentum deposited (e.g., Bell 1975b ; Durran 2003 ). It is the asymmetry of lee waves generated by quasi-steady flow, as opposed to purely tidal lee waves, that allows for net momentum transports. This redistribution of horizontal momentum in the vertical has been shown to have effects on the large-scale ocean circulation ( Naveira Garabato et al. 2013 ; Trossman et al

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Madeleine M. Hamann, Matthew H. Alford, Andrew J. Lucas, Amy F. Waterhouse, and Gunnar Voet

valleys can enhance cross-shore transport driven by alongshore winds ( Zhang and Lentz 2017 , 2018 ). Understanding the dynamics at play within shelf-incising canyon systems both informs our ability to parse out these complicated multidisciplinary puzzles and expands our understanding of canyon physics in general. Comprehensive measurements can be made in these shallower and more easily accessible systems to examine the effects of variable stratification and forcing, and the physical intuition can be

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Shuwen Tan, Larry J. Pratt, Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep S. Budiman, and Ahmad Bayhaqi

entrainment. The downstream mixing and entrainment transport have not been quantified before. To maintain a steady-state balance of volume and heat budgets in the deep Banda Sea, the deep overflow entering the Banda Sea must be lifted up through mixing to depths shallower than those of the sills of the exit straits of the Indonesian Seas. Direct mixing measurements and numerical modeling have suggested that mixing in the Indonesian Seas is highly variable, with enhanced tide-induced diapycnal mixing at

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

. Oceanographic conditions Background currents ( u , υ ) and temperature ( T ), salinity ( S ), and pressure ( P ) were collected from five deep subsurface moorings (M1–M5) and four bottom moorings (B1–B4) with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) around Velasco Reef ( Fig. 1b ), from May 2016 through March 2017 ( Schönau et al. 2019 ; Teague et al. 2020 ). Table 1 provides positions, measurement depths, measurement times, sampling intervals, water depths, and instrument types used in the moorings

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Matthew H. Alford, Daniel L. Rudnick, Gunnar Voet, and Hemantha Wijesekera

likely contribute to the variance as well. In early November there is a weak peak around ~2 days, as well as a smattering of energy in the superinertial, subtidal band in September and October. Andres et al. (2020) observed a similar signal in acoustic travel time records from pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) around the island. This signal propagated through their array in the southeast direction, and they concluded near-inertial internal waves likely propagate into the region

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Daniel L. Rudnick, and Jennifer A. MacKinnon

have been shown to generate stationary Rossby waves which are believed to inhibit boundary layer separation ( Boyer and Davies 1982 ). Because these asymmetric effects of background rotation are difficult to observe directly in the real ocean, knowledge of the signed Ro is necessary for making comparisons to these idealized studies. This study quantifies Ro both upstream and downstream of Palau and compares average properties of the currents over instances of eastward and westward flow. Island

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