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Melanie Wetzel, Michael Meyers, Randolph Borys, Ray McAnelly, William Cotton, Andrew Rossi, Paul Frisbie, David Nadler, Douglas Lowenthal, Stephen Cohn, and William Brown

data collection sites. Snow sampling was conducted on a storm event basis during 16 January–25 February 2002. A majority of the measurements took place while the snow event was still occurring, which reduced the effects of snowpack metamorphosis, and the comparative analysis with model forecasts was carried out on the snowfall accumulation up to that point in time (rather than the “total” snowfall for a given event). A mesonet of surface meteorological reporting stations is operated continuously by

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R. Padilla-Hernández, W. Perrie, B. Toulany, and P. C. Smith

validation is based on data from buoys ( Bidlot et al. 2002 ) and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). A hierarchical system of nested grids is used to address several concerns. Nested grids enable us to simulate remotely generated swell waves in the North Atlantic propagating into the Gulf of Maine, and to avoid excessively expensive high-resolution grids for the entire computational domain. Nested grids provide high resolution in coastal areas, and over extensive shallow areas such as Georges

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Gregory S. Poulos, Douglas A. Wesley, John S. Snook, and Michael P. Meyers

1. Introduction During 24–26 October 1997, a deep cutoff low pressure system moved eastward across the southern Colorado Rocky Mountains producing blizzard conditions along the Front Range from Wyoming to southern New Mexico. In addition, this storm caused easterly hurricane-force winds at the surface near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, which destroyed about 5300 ha (1 ha = ∼2.5 acres) of west-slope forest. Heavy snow also occurred in Nebraska and Kansas. The effects on the public of these

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Christopher Lucas, Peter T. May, and Robert A. Vincent

characteristics of fronts derived from qualitatively combining wind profilers and Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems compared favorably with the results obtained from more traditional observing systems and allowed for mesoscale features of frontal systems to be resolved on hourly timescales. Browning et al. (1998) combined data from UHF and VHF wind profilers to identify mesoscale characteristics of a cold frontal system in Wales, including the upper-level and low-level jets, the rearward sloping warm

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L. C. Breaker, L. D. Burroughs, Y. Y. Chao, J. F. Culp, N. L. Guinasso Jr., R. L. Teboulle, and C. R. Wong

.S. territoriesand possessions. The NOS tide stations use a stillingwell float-driven gauge with an analog-to-digital recorder (ADR) that records data at 6-min intervals.Each ADR measurement is an instantaneous discretevalue measured with a resolution of 0.003 m. The NOS has implemented a Next Generation Water Level Measurement System (NGWLMS); thesefield units consist of a data collection platform and anacoustic sensor. The data are stored in memory andtransmitted via the GOES satellite every 3 h

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Christopher A. Hiemstra, Glen E. Liston, Roger A. Pielke Sr., Daniel L. Birkenheuer, and Steven C. Albers

to construct its diagnoses, including 1) surface observations from regional surface networks every 5 min to 3 h, 2) hourly surface aviation observations, 3) Doppler radar volume scans every 6–10 min, 4) wind and temperature Radio Acoustic Sounding System profiles from the NOAA Demonstration Profiler Network every 6–60 min, 5) satellite visible data every 15–30 min, 6) multispectral image (e.g., Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) and sounding radiance data every 60 min, 7) global

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Sen Chiao and Yuh-Lang Lin

study. The fully compressible, nonhydrostatic governing equations in the terrain-following vertical coordinate ( Gal-Chen and Somerville 1975 ) are solved by using a second-order finite-difference scheme. A semi-implicit scheme with time-splitting treatment for the acoustic modes enables efficient integration of the fully compressible equations ( Klemp and Wilhelmson 1978 ; Durran and Klemp 1983 ). Physical parameterizations include short- and longwave radiation ( Harshvardhan et al. 1987 ). The

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Gabriel García-Medina, H. Tuba Özkan-Haller, Peter Ruggiero, and Jeffrey Oskamp

Meteorological Organization's Gridded Binary (GRIB1) format. c. Wave hindcasting NearWW3_PNW can also be executed in hindcast mode. Hindcasts are performed to validate the model with in situ measurements that were gathered in the past. Wind forcing for these simulations comes from the NOAA/NCEP GFS reanalysis; in other words, these are analyzed wind fields instead of forecasted, therefore resulting in higher quality input. Consequently, hindcast performance most closely characterizes errors in the wave model

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W. H. Hand and B. J. Conway

procedure and output displays. Comparisons of LAPS wind fields with independentaircraft measurements obtained during the Winter Icing and Storms Project experiment indicate ag~ementgenerally within 4 m s-I (rms).1. Introduction New data sources available at the Forecast SystemsLaboratory (FSL), one of the National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration's Environmental Research Laboratories (NOAA), are being used to develop new types of mesoscale analyses. FSL's LocalAnalysis and Prediction System

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R. M. Clancy and LCDR W. D. Sadler

WEATHER AND FORECASTING VOLUME7Laboratory (NRL). NRL is the navy's corporate laboratory for research, development, test, and evaluationof ocean, atmospheric, and acoustic models. A formaland highly structured process exists for transitioningmodels from R&D at NRL into operations at FLENUMOCEANCEN. More than a dozen ocean model systems, not all ofwhich will be discussed in this paper, run operationallyat FLENUMOCEANCEN (see Clancy 1987

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