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Eduardo Landulfo, Alexandros Papayannis, Ani Sobral Torres, Sandro Toshio Uehara, Lucila Maria Viola Pozzetti, Caio Alencar de Matos, Patricia Sawamura, Walter Morinobu Nakaema, and Wellington de Jesus

using the aerosols as passive tracers of the atmospheric dynamic processes. The sun photometer data are used to provide the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values at selected wavelengths and thus, to derive the Ångström exponent (AE) values. The synergy of Cimel and lidar measurements also acts to minimize the uncertainties of the assumptions made, especially when inverting the lidar signal using Klett’s technique ( Klett 1985 ). In Brazil, a continent-sized country, there are only two operating

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V. Bellantone, I. Carofalo, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. Santese, A. M. Tafuro, and A. Turnone

function is estimated to be equal to 1 between 350 and 500 m ( Matthias et al. 2004b ). An AERONET sun/sky radiometer is used to retrieve columnar aerosol volume size distributions, real and imaginary refractive indices ( n and k ), single-scattering albedo (SSA) values, and aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs). The automatic, robotically operated sun-tracking sky radiometer, with a 1.2° field of view and two detectors, measures the direct sun radiance at eight spectral channels: 340, 380, 440, 500

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Ronny Engelmann, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Detlef Müller, Egidijus Žeromskis, Dietrich Althausen, and Birgit Wehner

(the transition layer between PBL and the free troposphere) are not well understood and thus are not well parameterized in atmospheric models. Observations of fluxes covering the entire PBL and the entrainment zone are rare. With respect to aerosols, vertical transport is even more complicated because the ascent of particles is often combined with water uptake because of a relative humidity increase with height in the PBL. The particle mass concentration and optical and microphysical properties

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Matthias Grzeschik, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Volker Wulfmeyer, Dirk Engelbart, Ulla Wandinger, Ina Mattis, Dietrich Althausen, Ronny Engelmann, Matthias Tesche, and Andrea Riede

. Rev. , 132 , 2954 – 2976 . 10.1175/MWR2839.1 Turner, D. , Ferrare R. , Brasseur L. H. , Feltz W. , and Tooman T. , 2002 : Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 19 , 37 – 50 . 10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<0037:AROWVA>2.0.CO;2 Wandinger, U. , 2005 : Raman lidar. Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, Ed., Springer, 241–271 . Whiteman, D. , 2003 : Examination

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