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Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Jason Otkin, Xiwu Zhan, Kingtse Mo, Mark Svoboda, Brian Wardlow, and Agustin Pimstein

. (5) to compute ESI. However, incomplete screening of cloud-impacted LST inputs to ALEXI can serve to either increase or decrease the LST rise signal, depending on whether the clouds occur in the early morning or near noon, respectively. This leads to spurious reductions or enhancements of ET retrievals from the ALEXI algorithm and will add noise to the ET/ F ref composites. While GOES-derived cloud masks are implemented in the ALEXI processing infrastructure, thin clouds, particularly in the

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Jiarui Dong, Mike Ek, Dorothy Hall, Christa Peters-Lidard, Brian Cosgrove, Jeff Miller, George Riggs, and Youlong Xia

surfaces ( Dozier et al. 2008 ; Painter et al. 2009 ). Rittger et al. (2013) gives a quantitative analysis of the MODIS/ Terra snow cover daily level 3 (L3) global 500-m grid (MOD10A1) binary and fractional snow cover errors, along with those of the MODSCAG algorithm. MODSCAG has the ability to detect the fraction of a snow-covered area down to values of 10%–15% and is able to detect snow cover at lower elevations near the snow line where snow is not the dominant surface cover. Parajka et al

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Youlong Xia, Michael B. Ek, David Mocko, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Justin Sheffield, Jiarui Dong, and Eric F. Wood

used in this study is VFSA. Details of VFSA have been described and used by many scientists ( Sen and Stoffa 1996 ; Xia 2007 ). Here only a brief description is given. One may use the “temperature” parameter constructed within the Metropolis algorithm ( Metropolis et al. 1953 ) to locate the global minimum of an error function as defined in the following section by very slowly lowering the temperature parameter within where P is the probability of acceptance of a new parameter set with positive

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Bart Nijssen, Shraddhanand Shukla, Chiyu Lin, Huilin Gao, Tian Zhou, Ishottama, Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN; Sorooshian et al. 2000 ) are made consistent with historical precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Adler et al. 2003 ; Huffman et al. 2009 ) through the use of a Bayesian correction algorithm. This has evolved into the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS; Hao et al. 2014 ). Heim and Brewer (2012) describe the development of the Global Drought Monitor

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Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David Mocko, Rolf Reichle, Yuqiong Liu, Kristi R. Arsenault, Youlong Xia, Michael Ek, George Riggs, Ben Livneh, and Michael Cosh

et al. 1987 ) are available. A similar product was derived from SSM/I using the Chang et al. (1987) algorithm for the period from 1987 to the present. Passive microwave–based retrievals using several channels (10, 18, 23, 36, and 89 GHz) from AMSR-E ( Kelly et al. 2003 ) on board the NASA Aqua satellite are available from 2002 to 2011. The Kelly et al. (2003) algorithm generates snow depth fields first, and SWE is then calculated by multiplying the snow depth fields with a snow density map

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Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Iliana E. Mladenova, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Mark Svoboda

precludes regional applications of LST-based energy balance algorithms ( Anderson et al. 1997 ). Over CONUS, ALEXI uses LST data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Sounder, vegetation cover fraction derived from the 8-day Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index product (MOD15A2; Myneni et al. 2002 ), and hourly insolation from the GOES imager ( Otkin et al. 2005 ). The ABL model component also uses the general slope (i.e., lapse rate) of the

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Kingtse C. Mo and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

. Andreadis, K. M. , Clark E. A. , Wood W. , Hamlet A. F. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2005 : Twentieth-century drought in the conterminous United States . J. Hydrometeor. , 6 , 985 – 1001 , doi: 10.1175/JHM450.1 . Bohn, T. J. , Livneh B. , Oyler J. W. , Running S. W. , Nijssen B. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2013 : Global evaluation of MTCLIM and related algorithms for forcing of ecological and hydrological models . Agric. For. Meteor. , 176 , 38 – 49 , doi: 10.1016/j

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

any precipitation during a pentad, the algorithm traces the same number of parcels backward in time. The water mass represented by each parcel will be the same within any pentad, but may vary greatly between pentads, in proportion to the precipitation during the pentad. On a high-resolution global grid such as MERRA, this generates a very large set of two-dimensional source fields. The source fields for a set of grid boxes, delineating a river basin, nation, or any arbitrary land area, can be

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Shahrbanou Madadgar and Hamid Moradkhani

drought management . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 45 , 1353 – 1361 , doi:10.1175/JAM2401.1 . Thulasiraman, K. , and Swamy M. N. S. , 1992 : Graphs: Theory and Algorithms. John Wiley and Son, 460 pp. Twedt, T. M. , Schaake J. C. , and Peck E. L. , 1977 : National Weather Service extended streamflow prediction. Proc. 45th Western Snow Conf., Albuquerque, NM, 52–57. van Huijgevoort, M. H. J. , Hazenberg P. , van Lanen H. A. J. , and Uijlenhoet R. , 2012 : A generic method for

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