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Lei Shi, Ge Peng, and John J. Bates

further improved through refinements to the regression formula, training dataset, collocation procedure, and height adjustment to 10 m ( Jackson et al. 2009 ). Zong et al. (2007) used the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS) (AMSR-E) to derive near-surface specific humidity. Roberts et al. (2010) developed retrieval algorithms based on the neural network technique to derive sea surface temperature, air temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed. Jackson and

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

, thus providing about 2880 continuous measurements for each crossing. The shipboard measurements include the upper-ocean temperature (4 m below the surface), near-surface air temperature ( T air ), wind speed ( U w ), and atmospheric relative humidity, which was converted to specific humidity ( q air ) using the Buck (1981) algorithm. Dong et al. (2006) showed that there is little bias in the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) ocean temperature (measured

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

consideration using an SSM/I ice-type algorithm that discriminates among new ice, young ice, and first-year ice ( Kimura and Wakatsuchi 1999 ). In the coastal polynya region, Ohshima et al.’s heat flux dataset showed a large heat flux to the atmosphere, which had not been shown in the previous datasets. 2. Sea ice and its role in the Sea of Okhotsk The Sea of Okhotsk ( Fig. 1 ) is the southernmost sea in the Northern Hemisphere with a sizeable seasonal ice cover. The initial freezing occurs in the northern

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

-of-the-art bulk algorithms to NWP fields to obtain the turbulent (latent plus sensible) heat flux, which is subsequently combined with the unmodified net radiation from NWP fields to obtain an estimate of the air–sea buoyancy flux. Through intercomparison of these six products, we not only attempt to assess the accuracy of SOSE fluxes, but we also attempt to gauge some of the deficiencies of various flux products and gain better insight into their relative uncertainty in different subregions. The accuracy of

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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

the spectrum. The MODIS daily global snow cover data at 0.25° were utilized (see online at ). In the updated version, higher-resolution snow cover at 0.05° at a daily time scale (MOD10C1 from Terra , MYD10C1 from Aqua ) and at monthly time scale (MOD10CM from Terra , MYD10CM from Aqua ) are utilized. It is based on a snow mapping algorithm that employs additional criteria such as the normalized difference snow index ( Hall et al. 2006 ). This information

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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

oceans: Driving the sea surface temperature . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 22 , 859 – 881 . Curry , R. D. , and M. S. McCartney , 2001 : Ocean gyre circulation changes associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 31 , 3374 – 3400 . da Silva , A. , C. C. Young , and S. Levitus , 1994 : Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994 . Vol. 1, Algorithms and Procedures, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 6, 83 pp . Deser , C. , and M. L. Blackmon , 1993 : Surface climate variations over

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