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  • DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation x
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Hungjui Yu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Junhong Wang, Hung-Chi Kuo, Holger Vömel, and Ruud Dirksen

-air network, which includes over 800 sites and about 18 sonde types, the Vaisala RS92 is the most widely used radiosonde (at >50% of the sites). Its humidity errors have been studied extensively, and various correction methods were developed to correct known biases (e.g., Vömel et al. 2007a , b ; Yoneyama et al. 2008 ; Miloshevich et al. 2009 ; Wang et al. 2013 ). In response to these findings, Vaisala introduced a new algorithm to correct the solar radiation dry bias (SRDB) and time-lag error in RS92

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, Merhala Thurai, and V. Chandrasekar

h ) and that A h and R ( A h ) estimations do not rely on a spatial filter (unlike K dp ). While temperature is known to impact A h , Diederich et al. (2015a) found that temperature does not significantly impact R ( A h ). Optimization algorithms have been designed to automatically determine the optimal R relationship depending on rain intensity, radar measurement uncertainty, and raindrop-size distribution variability ( Chandrasekar et al. 1993 ; Ryzhkov et al. 2005b , c ; C11

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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

control, radar polar coordinate data were interpolated to Cartesian coordinates using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) REORDER software package ( Oye and Case 1995 ), with the resolution of 2 km in the horizontal and 0.5 km in the vertical ( XR14 ). Radar reflectivity was then classified into convective and stratiform precipitation components based on Steiner et al. (1995) . This algorithm only considers the horizontal texture of the radar reflectivity. Note that TRMM PR (2A23

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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

versions of the forcing datasets partially compensate for the short record of the observations. In comparison, surface meteorology data from the RAMA buoy located at 0°N, 80.5°E are available from August 2008 to July 2013. The extended buoy time series allows us to calculate more robust statistical relationships between variables. Surface evaporation is calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm ( Fairall et al. 2003 ), which is a bulk flux algorithm used to estimate surface fluxes from a time series of

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, and Merhala Thurai

also found agreement between the DSD-based N w ( D 0 ) C/S partitioning method and the widely used Steiner et al. (1995) radar reflectivity-based partitioning algorithm using data from Darwin. This radar method identifies convective cores based on a reflectivity threshold and whether localized regions of reflectivity stand out relative to the smoothed, background reflectivity field, which can be modified for particular regions and radar data resolutions ( Yuter and Houze 1997 , 1998 ). Fig . 1

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Walter M. Hannah, Brian E. Mapes, and Gregory S. Elsaesser

radar data were obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 2A25 product ( Iguchi et al. 2000 ). The TRMM data were processed and categorized according to the K -means clustering algorithm of Elsaesser et al. (2010) . More details of the radar data processing are provided in section 5 . 4. Estimating the Lagrangian tendency a. Eulerian tendency The first step to estimating the left-hand side of (2) is to calculate the local time tendency, otherwise known as the local Eulerian

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Wen-wen Tung, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

of the system ( Badii et al. 1988 ). In the long term, as data archives from observations, numerical simulations, and reanalysis continue to mount at record rates after the Year of Tropical Convection (May 2008–April 2010; e.g., Moncrieff et al. 2007 , 2012 ), distilling these massive and heterogeneous datasets in order to gain scientific insight calls for minimally supervised analysis methods developed from first principles and efficient algorithms. Here, we address the challenges associated

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Nick Guy and David P. Jorgensen

Atmospheric Research. The QC algorithms used in this study made use of the zero (reflectivity; dB Z ), first (Doppler velocity), and second [spectral width (SW)] moments of the returned signal. Information provided by the aircraft inertial navigation and global positioning systems (i.e., ground-relative speed, altitude, and pitch, roll, and drift angles) allowed for pointing angle corrections, as well as the removal of aircraft motion from the radial velocity measurements. Tail radar scan geometry

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Simon P. de Szoeke

-member properties θ s and q s are calculated from the ocean skin temperature and its saturation specific humidity. Surface sensible and latent heat and MSE fluxes are computed using the COARE 3.5 bulk aerodynamic algorithm ( Edson et al. 2013 ). Turbulence entrains unsaturated air from the base of the cumulus layer into the BL. We choose properties θ en and q en of the entrainment end member from 800-m altitude, where the mean θ sounding is moist adiabatic (>4 K km −1 ) compared to the well-mixed BL

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

computed using the COARE 3.0 algorithm ( Fairall et al. 1996 ). The mean of TropFlux values that fall within a 1° radius of Revelle ’s nominal position are plotted in Fig. 2 along with daily averaged Revelle fluxes when the ship is on station. SST from the Revelle are also shown in Fig. 2 , as is the mean TRMM rainfall within the 1° radius of the site. The surface sensible and latent heat fluxes and SST, both the daily and SOP-mean values, show generally good agreement throughout much of the

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