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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

model [Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT); Jones et al. 2003 ; Hoogenboom et al. 2015 ] was also employed to estimate the latent energy fluxes from agricultural fields. DSSAT is a framework for biophysical modeling and includes a suite of more than 28 different crop models. It simulates crop growth and yield in response to management, climate, and soil conditions. The DSSAT evaporation algorithms have been validated and proven to be good predictors of evapotranspiration

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

-cover classification schemes assign a unique set of surface properties to the urban land class. The aim of this work is therefore to improve the land-cover classification scheme in Southern California using updated high-resolution airborne remote sensing data from the recent HyspIRI Mission Preparatory Flight campaigns and to assess the suitability of the updated regional atmospheric modeling system to represent T max and sea breeze. The new urban land classes are here derived through a classification algorithm

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Madhavi Jain, A. P. Dimri, and D. Niyogi


Recent decades have witnessed rapid urbanization and urban population growth resulting in urban sprawl of cities. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal dynamics of the urbanization process (using remote sensing and spatial metrics) that has occurred in Delhi, the capital city of India, which is divided into nine districts. The urban patterns and processes within the nine administrative districts of the city based on raw satellite data have been taken into consideration. Area, population, patch, edge, and shape metrics along with Pearson’s chi statistics and Shannon’s entropy have been calculated. Three types of urban patterns exist in the city: 1) highly sprawled districts, namely, West, North, North East, and East; 2) medium sprawled districts, namely, North West, South, and South West; and 3) least sprawled districts—Central and New Delhi. Relative entropy, which scales Shannon’s entropy values from 0 to 1, is calculated for the districts and time spans. Its values are 0.80, 0.92, and 0.50 from 1977 to 1993, 1993 to 2006, and 2006 to 2014, respectively, indicating a high degree of urban sprawl. Parametric and nonparametric correlation tests suggest the existence of associations between built-up density and population density, area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension (AWMPFD) and area-weighted mean shape index (AWMSI), compactness index and edge density, normalized compactness index and number of patches, and AWMPFD and built-up density.

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

juniper coverage, particularly at the higher elevations of the Steens Mountain Wilderness area. As a detailed mechanistic model, CLM4.5 aims to describe the physical and physiological processes involved in the terrestrial carbon cycle as realistically as possible. Each PFT is described by a set of 122 specific parameters (CLM release 4.5.1_r119). This complexity comes at a cost: the high number of parameters makes it increasingly difficult to improve results by refining selected single algorithms or

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

, developed by the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG; Maricopa Association of Governments 2005, unpublished report). MAG staff, working with the other councils of governments (COGs), used a “red dot” algorithm and input describing land ownership, to establish areas to be excluded from growth, along with census information, to develop a “what if” scenario to see how the state could develop. Red dots represent housing units, which are expected to triple by 2050, from 2000, when the population is

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

form of the vegetation–snow albedo algorithms but rather in the simulated distribution of vegetation cover and/or the specific values of albedo parameters. The inadequate simulation of the south-to-north decline in tree cover is an example of such shortcomings in current climate models ( Loranty et al. 2014 ). Our results suggest that even if the vegetation distribution and the albedo parameters were appropriate, climate models would need to properly account for the subgrid heterogeneity created by

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