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Jeffrey J. Early and Adam M. Sykulski

of statistical significance. e. Optimal fits Table 2 summarizes the key results of this section by applying a smoothing spline ( S = 3) to 200 ensembles with three different slopes ( ω −2 , ω −3 , and ω −4 ) and five different strides. When the algorithm uses true values, uncontaminated by noise, we consider the process to be “unblinded,” in contrast to “blind” methods, in which the algorithm only uses noisy data. The second and third columns show the effective sample size and average mean

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Daniel B. Whitt, Leif N. Thomas, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, and Eric A. D’Asaro

meteorological station on the Knorr and converted to a stress using the algorithm of Large and Pond (1981) . (b) The streamwise component of the vertical shear ∂ u /∂ z , (c) the cross-stream component of the vertical shear ∂ υ /∂ z , and (d) the inverse Richardson number . (b)–(d) are derived from Knorr ADCP and TRIAXUS data. Density contours are superimposed with a spacing of 0.1 kg m −3 in each plot. The mixed layer depth, defined by a 0.03 kg m −3 density threshold, is indicated by a magenta line

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Leif N. Thomas, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Craig M. Lee, Jody M. Klymak, and Andrey Shcherbina

measurements and the COARE 3.5 bulk formula ( Edson et al. 2013 ), using the wind speed relative to the mean water velocity between 10 and 30 m. The correction due to using the ocean currents averages −3.8%. The “3.5” modification of the COARE bulk stress calculation algorithm was developed from extensive direct wind stress observations during the Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE; Marshall et al. 2009 ) in the Gulf Stream system during

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Andrey Y. Shcherbina, Miles A. Sundermeyer, Eric Kunze, Eric D’Asaro, Gualtiero Badin, Daniel Birch, Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Jörn Callies, Brandy T. Kuebel Cervantes, Mariona Claret, Brian Concannon, Jeffrey Early, Raffaele Ferrari, Louis Goodman, Ramsey R. Harcourt, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, M.-Pascale Lelong, Murray D. Levine, Ren-Chieh Lien, Amala Mahadevan, James C. McWilliams, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Sonaljit Mukherjee, Jonathan D. Nash, Tamay Özgökmen, Stephen D. Pierce, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Roger M. Samelson, Thomas B. Sanford, R. Kipp Shearman, Eric D. Skyllingstad, K. Shafer Smith, Amit Tandon, John R. Taylor, Eugene A. Terray, Leif N. Thomas, and James R. Ledwell

near the surface to O (10) m near the bottom at 200 m. The model time step was 108 s. Hourly averaged wind stress computed from R/V Endeavor observations using the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) algorithm for 13–21 June was used in wind-forced runs. REFERENCES Badin , G. , A. Tandon , and A. Mahadevan , 2011 : Lateral mixing in the pycnocline by baroclinic mixed layer eddies . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 41 , 2080 – 2101 , doi

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