Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for :

  • North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) x
  • All content x
Clear All
Michelle Hallack-Alegria and David W. Watkins Jr.

) introduced the standardized precipitation index (SPI), a probability-based index designed to quantify the precipitation deficit for multiple time scales ( Shin and Salas 2000 ). This study uses a probability-based approach in which either percentile ranges or SPI values may be readily computed. The methodology is adapted from the regional L -moment algorithm, as described in detail by Hosking and Wallis (1997) . This algorithm has been applied recently to the analysis of high-intensity rainfall (e

Full access
Chunmei Zhu and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

specific soil characteristics (e.g., field capacity, wilting point, and saturated hydraulic conductivity) were obtained from algorithms of Cosby et al. (1984) , Rawls et al. (1998) , and Reynolds et al. (2000) for each soil texture type. The VIC model was implemented using a three-layer soil column where the depths of each layer were adjusted during the calibration process. The calibration process was as described in Maurer et al. (2002) , and specifically targeted 14 long-term stream gauge

Full access
Christopher R. Williams, Allen B. White, Kenneth S. Gage, and F. Martin Ralph

4 and 6 m s −1 is associated with the raindrops within the radar pulse volume during the radar dwell time. An algorithm to estimate the raindrop size distribution is described below and determines the best Gaussian-shaped function to fit the air motion spectral peak at each range gate. The mean air motion and the spectral width of the turbulence as quantified by the fitted Gaussian function standard deviation (STD; following Gossard 1994 ) are plotted in both spectral panels in Fig. 5. In

Full access
Wanqiu Wang and Pingping Xie

made through refining the interpolation algorithm. One concern with the OI and RTG analyses is their capability in resolving the disturbances of small spatial scales such as the contrast between the GoC and the eastern Pacific to its west, tropical instability waves, and structures of sharp spatial gradient such as the Gulf Stream. Chelton and Wentz (2005) showed that one difficulty of the weekly OI analysis is that it was not able to sufficiently resolve these features, largely due to the use of

Full access
Timothy J. Lang, David A. Ahijevych, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Richard E. Carbone, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

–stratiform separation algorithm is applied to the reflectivity field [ Yuter and Houze (1998) ; with tunable parameters a = 8.0 and b = 55.0], and total rainfall volume, convective and stratiform rainfall areas, and rainfall fractions are recorded for each PF, along with its maximum reflectivity value. An ellipse-fitting procedure, developed by Nesbitt et al. (2006) , was applied to each PF to objectively estimate the maximum dimension (i.e., twice the major axis length of each ellipse) of each feature. An

Full access
Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Brian D. McNoldy, Peter J. Rogers, and Richard K. Taft

horizontal resolution ( Liu 2002 ). SST data were obtained from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Precipitation estimates at 3-h intervals and 0.25° resolution are based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42v6 algorithm ( Huffman et al. 2007 ). National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis data at 2.5° × 2.5° resolution ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) are obtained from

Full access
Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, David B. Enfield, and Chidong Zhang

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 15-yr global reanalysis (ERA15, Gibson et al. 1997 ). They examine uncertainties arising from choices of area boundaries, calculation algorithms, spatial and temporal resolutions, as well as a combination of these effects. Their main conclusion is that these uncertainties are smaller than the large annual and interannual variabilities in moisture flux divergence estimated from the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis. The implication is that the NCEP

Full access
John E. Janowiak, Valery J. Dagostaro, Vernon E. Kousky, and Robert J. Joyce

precipitation estimates from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. J. Hydrometeor. , 5 , 487 – 503 . McCollum , J. R. , W. F. Krajewski , R. R. Ferraro , and M. B. Ba , 2002 : Evaluation of biases of satellite rainfall estimation algorithms over the continental United States. J. Appl. Meteor. , 41 , 1065 – 1080 . Panofsky , H. A. , and G. W. Brier , 1963 : : Some Applications of Statistics to Meteorology . The Pennsylvania State University

Full access
Mekonnen Gebremichael, Enrique R. Vivoni, Christopher J. Watts, and Julio C. Rodríguez

attenuating wavelengths. J. Meteor. , 11 , 58 – 67 . Huffman , G. J. , R. F. Adler , M. M. Morrissey , D. T. Bolvin , S. Curtis , R. Joyce , B. McGavock , and J. Susskind , 2001 : Global precipitation at 1° daily resolution from multisatellite observations. J. Hydrometeor. , 2 , 36 – 50 . Iguchi , T. , T. Kozu , R. Meneghini , J. Awaka , and K. Okamoto , 2000 : Rain-profiling algorithm for the TRMM precipitation radar. J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 2038 – 2052

Full access
Chunmei Zhu, Tereza Cavazos, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

radiation data and humidity are derived using algorithms described in Maurer et al. (2002) based on surface air temperature. Surface wind is taken from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Surface skin temperature T s , S m in three vertical layers, and SWE are derived from the VIC land surface model, which is designed both for off-line, or stand-alone use to simulate the water and energy budgets of

Full access