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Zhe Feng, Fengfei Song, Koichi Sakaguchi, and L. Ruby Leung

(CAM5) physics ( Sakaguchi et al. 2015 ; Zhao et al. 2016 ). Simulations from this model with regional refinement at mesoscale resolution over North America are analyzed as a test case to demonstrate the utility of the new diagnostic approach developed in this study for model evaluation and guiding the directions for future development. At the core of the developed framework is a novel MCS tracking algorithm for mesoscale resolution models based on high-resolution observations. To facilitate

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Suzana J. Camargo, Claudia F. Giulivi, Adam H. Sobel, Allison A. Wing, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Jeffrey D. O. Strong, Anthony D. Del Genio, Maxwell Kelley, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Enrico Scoccimarro, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

the ocean ( Zarzycki 2016 ; Scoccimarro et al. 2017 ; Li and Sriver 2018 ), as well as the tracking algorithm used to identify TCs in the model outuput ( Horn et al. 2014 ; Zarzycki and Ullrich 2017 ). It is clear that complex processes in the model determine the formation and intensification of TCs. Therefore, it is important to analyze the role of the climatological large-scale environment in determining the model TC climatology. The question we explore here is: do models with a

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Allison A. Wing, Suzana J. Camargo, Adam H. Sobel, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

tropical cyclone genesis guidance (e.g., Halperin et al. 2016 ) while climate models have improved such that they can reproduce the TC climatology with some fidelity (e.g., Zhao et al. 2009 ; Wehner et al. 2014 ) and exhibit some skill in seasonal forecasting ( Zhang et al. 2016 ; Vecchi et al. 2014 ; Murakami et al. 2015 , 2016 ; Vitart et al. 2010 ; Chen and Lin 2011 , 2013 ). This is largely a result of algorithmic and computational advances that have allowed for the use of high horizontal

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Jeyavinoth Jeyaratnam, Leo J. Donner, Charles J. Seman, Ming Zhao, Huan Guo, and Yi Ming

Bretherton et al. (2004) scheme utilizes a single bulk plume that entrains and detrains at each model layer. While the lateral mixing rate is largely specified, the vertical profile of entrainment/detrainment rate is determined interactively by a parcel buoyancy sorting algorithm so that the cloud vertical mass flux can either increase or decrease with height depending on the thermodynamic properties of cloud environment. Attempts at using the single bulk plume model for representing both shallow and

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James F. Booth, Catherine M. Naud, and Jeff Willison

create a linear estimate of PWV from Q850 and find that large biases rarely occur and do not systematically affect specific cyclone regions. Therefore, given the availability of data, the analysis reported here will use Q850 in the WCB model. Extratropical cyclone tracks in the models and reanalysis are identified using the Lagrangian tracking algorithm of Bauer et al. (2016) , which is an update of the algorithm in Bauer and Del Genio (2006) . The algorithm identifies low pressure centers, using 6

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Yi-Hung Kuo, Kathleen A. Schiro, and J. David Neelin

) and pressure p }, and mass-weighted column-averaged temperature . The primary source of CWV and P here is the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) retrieval products processed by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS; algorithm v7.1, TMIv7.1 hereafter; Wentz et al. 2015 ). The retrieved values include gridded (0.25° × 0.25°) snapshots of CWV (0.3 mm) and P (0.1 mm h −1 ) over ocean, with no data available over land. The TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) 2A25 (v7; TRMM 2011a ) and TRMM 3B42 (v7; TRMM 2011b

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Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Suzana J. Camargo, Allison A. Wing, Adam H. Sobel, Hiroyuki Murakami, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, and Eric Page

statistics in the select period are typical of each model. GCM outputs are saved with a 6-h time interval at the models’ native grids and later interpolated to pressure levels for our analysis. b. TC detection algorithm TC-like vortices are detected and tracked from the model fields using the tracking algorithm described in detail in Murakami et al. (2015) . The tracking scheme mainly uses local sea level pressure minimum and warm-core conditions to detect TCs and impose a 3-day duration threshold on

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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

analyses of features in cyclones and/or their fronts were carried out using Lagrangian tracking algorithms and compositing. These metrics facilitated process-oriented analyses of satellite observations of clouds that lead to 1) explanations for relationships between stability and cloud cover ( Naud et al. 2016 ), and 2) pin-pointing the synoptic locations and conditions where biases in GCM clouds occur ( Fig. 10 ). Task force efforts on cyclone-centered precipitation led to 1) a satellite

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