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  • Understanding Diurnal Variability of Precipitation through Observations and Models (UDVPOM) x
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T. N. Krishnamurti, C. Gnanaseelan, A. K. Mishra, and A. Chakraborty

et al. (2007) examined four versions of the FSU model where the cloud radiative transfer algorithms were different for each version. These versions include the cloud schemes based on Slingo et al. (1987) and Pleim and Xiu (1995) . This study was aimed at comparing the results of short-range predictions from the use of ensemble mean, a unified model, and the multimodel superensemble. In this study the prediction of the diurnal changes for the phase and amplitude (fractional coverage) of low

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Song Yang, Kwo-Sen Kuo, and Eric A. Smith

derived from three level-2 TRMM standard rain-rate algorithms are used to conduct the analysis using an “explicit” scheme to identify the key diurnal modes. As a cross-check, as well as to investigate the reliability of another popular scheme, the Fourier harmonic analysis technique is also applied to identify the dominant diurnal modes of precipitation variability while suppressing the unimportant diurnal harmonics. The advantages and ambiguities related to the use of Fourier analysis are then

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

strong dependence on the environmental background, season, region, and the specific annual period. The most physical approaches for retrieving rainfall and its associated latent heating impacts, particularly over oceans, are associated with microwave algorithms, either passive or active or both ( Meneghini and Kozu 1990 ; Iguchi and Meneghini 1994 ; Wilheit et al. 1994 ; Haddad et al. 1997 , 2004 ; Smith et al. 1997 , 1998 ; Ebert and Manton 1998 ; Yang and Smith 1999a , b , 2000 ; Iguchi

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Munehisa K. Yamamoto, Fumie A. Furuzawa, Atsushi Higuchi, and Kenji Nakamura

those from PR over the summer tropics (winter midlatitude). Errors arise because of 1) the underestimation of TMI precipitation water path by TMI in midlatitudes, 2) the underestimation of near-surface precipitation water content by PR in tropics ( Masunaga et al. 2002 ), 3) errors of TMI rain estimates depending on storm height and rain type ( Furuzawa and Nakamura 2005 ), 4) errors in the TMI algorithm freezing-level assumption, or inadequate radar-reflectivity factor to rainfall rate ( Z – R

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Donald Wylie

, and T. Uttal , 2005 : Daytime global cloud typing from AVHRR and VIIRS: Algorithm description, validation, and comparisons. J. Appl. Meteor. , 44 , 804 – 826 . Rossow , W. B. , and R. A. Schiffer , 1999 : Advances in understanding clouds from the ISCCP. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 80 , 2261 – 2287 . Stubenrauch , C. J. , W. B. Rossow , F. Chéruy , N. A. Scott , and A. Chédin , 1999a : Clouds as seen by satellite sounders (3I) and imagers (ISCCP). Part I: Evaluation

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R. Cifelli, S. W. Nesbitt, S. A. Rutledge, W. A. Petersen, and S. Yuter

objective algorithm was used to identify contiguous echo regions at reflectivity thresholds ≥10 dB Z . The features were subdivided into MCSs [areas equal or exceeding 1000 km 2 with at least 1 pixel (9 km 2 ) identified as convective], sub-MCSs (areas less than 1000 km 2 with at least one convective pixel), and nonconvective systems (NCs) (NC – features of any size with no convective pixels). In this study, we focus on sub-MCS and MCS because NCs do not contribute significantly to rainfall

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Arindam Chakraborty and T. N. Krishnamurti

; Chakraborty et al. 2007 ). In those two studies we examined the impacts of different cloud radiation transfer algorithms on the distribution of the phase and amplitude of diurnal change. These studies found that major improvements in the modeling of the diurnal change in distribution of cloudiness and precipitation over the global tropics is possible from the construction of a multimodel superensemble ( Krishnamurti et al. 1999 ). Further, construction of a new statistical–physical-based unified cloud

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

troposphere generally have the greatest influence on the water cycle. The E is a function of the atmospheric boundary layer’s thermodynamic influence on evaporative parameterizations, and is therefore strongly affected by radiative forcings (see, e.g., RR07a ). The P is heavily parameterized in the R2, and is therefore dominated by the triggering mechanisms and dynamic algorithms hard-wired into the SAS convection scheme, although boundary layer and other parameterizations also feed into the

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Tianjun Zhou, Rucong Yu, Haoming Chen, Aiguo Dai, and Yang Pan

model physics in weather and climate models over eastern Asia and especially China, limitations of satellite products in measuring the diurnal cycle of rainfall over eastern China cast a shadow on this purpose. Nevertheless, the resemblances of satellite products with rain gauge observation in measuring the diurnal cycle over some typical regions, such as the eastern periphery of the Tibetan Plateau and southeastern China, should shed light on the improvements of satellite precipitation algorithms

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