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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge

of reflectivity anomalies from TRMM PR and GPM KuPR, composited by BSISO activity and whether the profiles were measured over the land or ocean. To see how these vertical profiles of reflectivity changed through the day, mean profiles from TRMM PR and GPM KuPR were composited by time of day, BSISO activity, and whether the profile was obtained over land or ocean. These profiles were further divided into convective and stratiform profiles, as determined by the algorithms within the 2A25 and 2A

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

microphysics schemes on aerosol concentrations ( Saleeby and van den Heever 2013 ). The simulation accurately captures the evolution of the MJO event from a regional perspective based on the similarities between the simulated and observed intraseasonal structure of zonal winds and precipitation throughout the simulation period. We therefore use the CRM simulation to analyze the convective structure and mesoscale processes of the MJO event. 4. Convective tracking algorithm We utilize a convective cloud

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

biases that are robust against both datasets will be the focus of subsequent discussion. Vertical profiles of large-scale diabatic heating Q1 − QR (apparent heat source minus radiative heating) ( Yanai et al. 1973 ) are retrieved from TRMM PR based on the spectral latent heating (SLH) algorithm ( Shige et al. 2004 , 2007 , 2008 , 2009 ), with a horizontal resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. We note that the PR can only detect precipitating particles (reflectivity > 17 dB Z ), so the Q1 − QR estimated by

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

Ocean, west Pacific Ocean, and MC increased stratiform precipitation occurring after convective precipitation during MJO convectively enhanced conditions led to a delay in the DCP peak relative to the DCP peak in convectively suppressed conditions. For our RAMS simulations, convective versus stratiform precipitation was identified with model-derived reflectivity at 2.4 km after Yuter and Houze (1997) , who followed the Steiner et al. (1995) algorithm, which uses radar reflectivity intensity and

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

.0 bulk flux algorithm ( Fairall et al. 2003 ); outgoing surface longwave radiation is estimated from the observed temperature at 5-m depth as a proxy for SST. Enthalpy fluxes are calculated according to Black et al. (2007) , and wind stress is estimated following Powell et al. (2003) . Several sensitivity runs are carried out to obtain uncertainty estimates, and to study the contribution of salinity-mediated density stratification to the overall response of the upper ocean. The experiments are

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

predominantly a result of surface latent heat fluxes. Through examination of the boundary layer moisture budget, horizontal convergence at low levels is largely opposed by the vertical flux of moisture out of the boundary layer, resulting in only minor low-level moistening by vertical advection, the sum of horizontal convergence and vertical moisture flux, during days 0–4. The latent heat flux calculations in CM1 do not account for the additional contribution to the bulk algorithm made by strong westward

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

– 566 , https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-11-561-2004 . 10.5194/npg-11-561-2004 Grunseich , G. , B. Subrahmanyam , and A. Arguez , 2011 : Influence of the Madden–Julian Oscillation on sea surface salinity in the Indian Ocean . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L17605 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049047 . 10.1029/2011GL049047 Halliwell , G. R. , 2003 : Evaluation of vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms in the Hybrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) . Ocean Modell. , 7 , 285

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

.1 Ichikawa , H. , and T. Yasunari , 2008 : Intraseasonal variability in diurnal rainfall over New Guinea and the surrounding oceans during austral summer . J. Climate , 21 , 2852 – 2868 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1784.1 . 10.1175/2007JCLI1784.1 Iguchi , T. , T. Kozu , R. Meneghini , J. Awaka , and K. Okamoto , 2000 : Rain-profiling algorithm for the TRMM Precipitation Radar . J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 2038 – 2052 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<2038:RPAFTT>2

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