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Audrey Delpech, Claire Ménesguen, Yves Morel, Leif N. Thomas, Frédéric Marin, Sophie Cravatte, and Sylvie Le Gentil

, A. F. , and J. C. McWilliams , 2005 : The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS): A split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model . Ocean Modell. , 9 , 347 – 404 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2004.08.002 . 10.1016/j.ocemod.2004.08.002 Shchepetkin , A. F. , and J. C. McWilliams , 2009 : Computational kernel algorithms for fine-scale, multiprocess, longtime oceanic simulations. Special Volume: Computational Methods for the Atmosphere and the

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A. C. Barbosa Aguiar, C. Ménesguen, S. Le Gentil, R. Schopp, and X. Carton

Abstract

Nearly all the subsurface eddies detected in seismic imaging of sections in the northeast Atlantic have been assumed to be anticyclones containing Mediterranean Water (MW). Fewer MW cyclones have been observed and studied. In this study, the work of previous numerical studies is extended to investigate some characteristics of layering surrounding MW cyclones, using a primitive equation model with equal diffusivities for salinity and temperature to suppress the effects of double diffusion. It is shown that, after a stable state is reached, both anticyclones and cyclones display similar patterns of layering: stacked thin layers of high acoustic reflectivity located above and below the core of each vortex, which do not match isopycnals. The authors conclude that it should not be possible to distinguish between MW cyclones and anticyclones based on their signature in seismic imaging alone. Complementary information is needed to determine the sense of rotation.

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C. Ménesguen, S. Le Gentil, P. Marchesiello, and N. Ducousso

and nearshore dynamics ( Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2005 ; Debreu et al. 2012 ; Soufflet et al. 2016 ). It is a split-explicit, free-surface, and terrain-following vertical coordinate oceanic model discretized on a C grid. The time-stepping algorithm is third-order accurate for the integration of advective terms and second-order accurate for internal gravity waves. It is a leapfrog Adams–Moulton predictor–corrector scheme (LF-AM3) complemented with a forward–backward (FB) feedback to extend the

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Carsten Eden

, 2006 : Algorithms for density, potential temperature, Conservative Temperature, and the freezing temperature of seawater . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 23 , 1709 – 1728 , doi: 10.1175/JTECH1946.1 . Lorenz , E. N. , 1955 : Available potential energy and the maintenance of the general circulation. Tellus, 7A, 157–167 , doi: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1955.tb01148.x . McDougall , T. J. , 2003 : Potential enthalpy: A conservative oceanic variable for evaluating heat content and heat fluxes . J

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Thomas Meunier, Enric Pallàs Sanz, Miguel Tenreiro, José Ochoa, Angel Ruiz Angulo, and Christian Buckingham

.15 Hz, resulting in effective (mean) horizontal and vertical resolutions of 2 km and 2 m, respectively. The conductivity data were corrected using an algorithm described by Garau et al. (2011) to remove thermal lag effects in zones of intense temperature gradients ( Lueck 1990 ). A detailed description of the survey and the data-processing methods is given in Meunier et al. (2018b) . In an effort to better understand finescale processes, temperature and salinity profiles were high-pass filtered

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