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M. L. R. Liberato, J. M. Castanheira, L. de la Torre, C. C. DaCamara, and L. Gimeno

, covering the period 1958–2001, were obtained from the Baldwin Web page at http://www.nwra.com/resumes/baldwin/nam.php .) 3) Midwinter sudden warming events Following the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) definition, a major midwinter stratospheric warming event occurs when the zonal mean zonal wind at 60°N and 10 hPa becomes easterly, and the gradient of 10-hPa zonal mean temperature becomes positive between 60° and 90°N. Charlton and Polvani (2007) have developed an objective algorithm to

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D. G. Dritschel and M. E. McIntyre

illustrative example that shows the PV Phillips effect particularly clearly. The example is taken from an ongoing series of numerical experiments to be reported elsewhere. These simulate freely decaying quasigeostrophic shallow-water turbulence in a beta-plane channel, starting with random vortices on an approximately uniform background PV gradient β . The experiments use a very accurate “contour-advective semi-Lagrangian” (CASL) algorithm ( Dritschel and Ambaum 1997 ; Dritschel et al. 1999 ) able to

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O. Martius, C. Schwierz, and H. C. Davies

. Sci. , 55 , 237 – 258 . Wittman , M. A. H. , A. J. Charlton , and L. Polvani , 2007 : The effect of lower stratospheric shear on baroclinic instability. J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 479 – 496 . Fig . 1. Schematic depiction of the PV streamer detection algorithm and the determination of the PV streamer orientation angles. The streamer area is enclosed by the contour between the two endpoints of the streamer (gray shading). The streamer classification scheme uses the angle ( β ) between the

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Peter L. Read, Yasuhiro H. Yamazaki, Stephen R. Lewis, Paul D. Williams, Robin Wordsworth, Kuniko Miki-Yamazaki, Joël Sommeria, and Henri Didelle

. Fincham , A. M. , and G. R. Spedding , 1997 : Low cost, high resolution DPIV for measurement of turbulent fluid flow. Exp. Fluids , 23 , 449 – 462 . Fincham , A. M. , and G. Delerce , 2000 : Advanced optimization of correlation imaging velocimetry algorithms. Exp. Fluids , 29 , Suppl. S13 – S22 . Galperin , B. , S. Sukoriansky , and H-P. Huang , 2001 : Universal n −5 spectrum of zonal flows on giant planets. Phys. Fluids , 13 , 1545 – 1548 . Galperin , B. , H

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