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John A. Knox, Donald W. McCann, and Paul D. Williams

is a turbulent Prandtl number; the closer this ratio is to 0.25, the less intermittent the turbulence. The eddy viscosity is empirically determined so that the resulting TKE dissipation estimates the eddy dissipation rate of actual aircraft ( Cornman et al. 1995 ). The eddy thermal diffusivity is K h = 4 K m . The Brunt–Väisälä frequency squared is N   2 = g /Θ(∂Θ/∂ z ), in which Θ is the potential temperature. The final output of the algorithm is the maximum of (19) and (20) . A key

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Gregory J. Hakim

1. Introduction Theoretical and practical motivation for balance dynamics is derived from the search for approximate dynamical systems that accurately reproduce solutions of the full system, but with fewer degrees of freedom. Put differently, the quest in balance dynamics is to accurately compress, or encode, information into fewer variables that I shall refer to as “control” variables. To retrieve the information compressed in these control variables, a decompression algorithm is needed to

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Chris Snyder, David J. Muraki, Riwal Plougonven, and Fuqing Zhang

-level vertical velocity seen in Fig. 3 are stationary with respect to the dipole. It also allows a clearer description of the remaining, time-dependent aspects of the simulation. Finally, in section 5 , we will test whether the time dependence in these solutions is an inherent characteristic of the dipole or arises from the details of the initial conditions (through geostrophic adjustment or balanced remnants of the QG initial conditions). The algorithm described in section 2c yields an estimate of c

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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

MLS GW variance is uniquely associated with a radiance channel, which in turn is identified with a characteristic pressure altitude, defined here as the peak of the vertical WF for that channel’s saturated radiances ( Fig. 1a ). The GW variance derived from these data is fundamentally different from variances deduced from the retrieved temperature, for which the retrieval algorithm has combined unsaturated radiances from multiple channels in a least squares sense to yield a temperature profile

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