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Ali H. Omar, David M. Winker, Mark A. Vaughan, Yongxiang Hu, Charles R. Trepte, Richard A. Ferrare, Kam-Pui Lee, Chris A. Hostetler, Chieko Kittaka, Raymond R. Rogers, Ralph E. Kuehn, and Zhaoyan Liu

anthropogenic and natural categories but also addresses the effects of specific species such as black carbon on snow. When direct measurements of the speciation of particle samples can be made, aerosols are chemically classified by the predominant species (e.g., sulfates, black carbon, organic carbon, etc.). Aerosols have also been classified by their hygroscopicity as being water soluble or water insoluble. Such classification is particularly useful for studies of the aerosol effects on cloud formation

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David M. Winker, Mark A. Vaughan, Ali Omar, Yongxiang Hu, Kathleen A. Powell, Zhaoyan Liu, William H. Hunt, and Stuart A. Young

1. Introduction Aerosols and clouds have important impacts on the earth’s climate through their effects on the radiation budget and the role they play in the water cycle. Clouds reflect sunlight back to space and trap outgoing thermal radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, modulating the radiative balance of the earth–atmosphere system. The net effect of these competing cooling and warming effects depends on the altitude of the cloud layers and their multilayer structures. Aerosols also

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