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Dhruv Balwada, Joseph H. LaCasce, Kevin G. Speer, and Raffaele Ferrari

1. Introduction Oceanic flows are turbulent over a large range of length scales and are very efficient at stirring tracers along isopycnals, enhancing the effects of molecular diffusion by many orders of magnitude ( Garrett 2006 ). The parameterization of this lateral stirring is key to the proper representation of the oceanic transport of heat, carbon, nutrients, and other climatically important tracers in climate models (e.g., Gnanadesikan et al. 2015 ; Fox-Kemper et al. 2013 ). The details

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Michael Bates, Ross Tulloch, John Marshall, and Raffaele Ferrari

to vary in space, systemic drifts in climate models can be reduced. Moreover, the response of models to changes in external forcing (such as trends in Southern Ocean winds due to anthropogenic forcing) is found to depend on the form of the eddy closure employed. A further complication arises because the along-isopycnal diffusivity for tracers ( Redi 1982 ) and the diffusivity used to close for the eddy-induced circulation may not be the same, a point emphasized by Smith and Marshall (2009

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Ivana Cerovečki and Matthew R. Mazloff

1977 ). In Eq. (3) , S 0 is a reference salinity, E is evaporation, P is precipitation, and R is runoff ( E , P , R ; m s −1 ). Their effects are confined to the uppermost model layer. Positive density flux implies an ocean density increase associated with a temperature decrease by ocean heat loss or by E − P − R increase. The haline forcing importantly includes contributions from sea ice processes as modeled in SOSE. The Walin (1982) analysis as elaborated in Iudicone et al. (2008b

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Ross Tulloch, Raffaele Ferrari, Oliver Jahn, Andreas Klocker, Joseph LaCasce, James R. Ledwell, John Marshall, Marie-Jose Messias, Kevin Speer, and Andrew Watson

strength of both the upper and lower overturning cells in the Southern Ocean. The anthropogenic tracer was released on an isopycnal surface near 1500-m depth, at the interface between the upper and lower MOC cells, in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean 2300 km upstream of the Drake Passage, midway between the Polar Front (PF) and the Subantarctic Front (SAF). Ledwell et al. (2011) estimated that after 1 yr the tracer spread vertically to a Gaussian profile in density with a standard deviation

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