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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

1. Introduction Anthropogenic land use and land cover changes, especially deforestation, can have substantial effects on the local and remote climate. For instance, deforestation can directly alter the partitioning of local surface energy and the water budget, leading to changes in precipitation (e.g., Zeng and Neelin 1999 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ; Lawrence and Vandecar 2015 ). Tropical rain forests have lower albedos, larger leaf and stem areas for evapotranspiration

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

reanalysis 1989–2010 . Ocean Sci. , 8 , 333 – 344 , https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-333-2012 . 10.5194/os-8-333-2012 Haynes , J. M. , C. Jakob , W. B. Rossow , G. Tselioudis , and J. Brown , 2011 : Major characteristics of Southern Ocean cloud regimes and their effects on the energy budget . J. Climate , 24 , 5061 – 5080 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4052.1 . 10.1175/2011JCLI4052.1 Irving , D. B. , S. Wijffels , and J. A. Church , 2019 : Anthropogenic aerosols, greenhouse

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See Yee Lim, Charline Marzin, Prince Xavier, Chih-Pei Chang, and Bertrand Timbal

the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Huffman et al. 2007 ), which provides a continuous rainfall dataset covering the period from 1998 onward and allows direct study on the rainfall impacts of CSs and MJO that provide forcing from outside of the region. The quasistationary Borneo vortex that was studied by Chang et al. (2005a) is a local system that interacts with both cold surges and MJO and always has strong effects on rainfall. Its explicit impacts will be left to future study

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