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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

investigations into anthropogenic global warming. The historical developments above, plus many others, beginning principally as scientific curiosity questions concerning Earth’s climate, have formed the foundational basis for the contemporary concept of RF and the estimation of the anthropogenic effects on climate. A major part of the work related to radiative drivers of climate change came initially on the longwave side, and more particularly with interest growing in the infrared absorption by CO 2 and H 2

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Steven Ghan and Joyce E. Penner

of the earth. The term radiative forcing (RF) refers to the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes without considering the adjustment of clouds to the aerosol. RFari is the component of RF due to aerosol–radiation interactions, specifically scattering and absorption of radiation, while RFaci is the component of RF due to aerosol–cloud interactions, specifically aerosol effects on droplet and ice crystal number but not liquid water or ice mass concentration

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

early global modeling study, Kiehl and Briegleb (1993) demonstrated the spatial variability in greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing ( Fig. 11-2 ), showing that the “offset” of greenhouse gas warming by aerosol cooling was not a simple cancellation of effects, and would have impacts on atmospheric dynamics due to changes in gradients of heating as also foreseen by Charlson et al. (1990) . Fig . 11-1. Time history of total global anthropogenic emissions of SO 2 (shown as grams and moles of sulfur

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global climate change. Objective To understand energy’s role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on general circulation models. A major goal of the department is to foster the development of general circulation models capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. DOE research has revealed that cloud radiative feedback is the single most important effect determining the

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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L03809 , doi: 10.1029/2010GL046047 . Bony , S. , and J.-L. Dufresne , 2005 : Marine boundary layer clouds at the heart of tropical cloud feedback uncertainties in climate models . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L20806 , doi: 10.1029/2005GL023851 . Borys , R. D. , D. H. Lowenthal , S. A. Cohn , and W. O. J. Brown , 2003 : Mountaintop and radar measurements of anthropogenic aerosol effects on snow growth and snowfall rate . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 30 , 1538

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare

chemistry measurements been as important as at the NSA site in Barrow. Measurements have been made alongside optical properties at the surface since 1998 and have yielded a wealth of information on Arctic haze. Quinn et al. (2002) presented seasonal cycles of aerosol components, suggesting their sources, and their relationship to light scattering and absorption, and indicating the radiative effects of these different aerosol types. Both anthropogenic and natural (fine mode sea salt) aerosol were found

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

to the effect of volcanic aerosol from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. [From WMO (2015 ).] With growing evidence of the harmful effects of anthropogenic halogens on the ozone layer and the associated risks for life and human health resulting from enhanced surface-UV radiation, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) developed in 1977 a World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer and conducted a series of international scientific ozone assessments. Following the Vienna Convention for the Protection of

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

, humidity, wind fields, and aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer over an urban area. Following the findings of Changnon (1969) that summertime thunderstorms enhanced precipitation amounts downwind of urban areas, METROMEX also studied local climate modifications on precipitation due to urban–industrial effects. In particular, anthropogenically induced moisture convergence over urban areas using multiple rain gauges, sophisticated rain radars, aircraft flights, and other surface

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Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

, S. Ghan , and M. Wang , 2007 : Inclusion of ice microphysics in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3) . J. Climate , 20 , 4526 – 4547 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI4264.1 . Lohmann , U. , 2008 : Global anthropogenic aerosol effects on convective clouds in ECHAM5-HAM . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 8 , 2115 – 2131 , doi: 10.5194/acp-8-2115-2008 . Lohmann , U. , P. Stier , C. Hoose , S. Ferrachat , S. Kloster , E. Roechner , and J. Zhang , 2007 : Cloud microphysics

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

, pollution, and anthropogenic emissions. The modified landscape, water cycle, atmospheric composition, and biogeochemical processes interact with weather and climate processes at various scales. Urban climatology has become an enduring subdiscipline of applied climatology that aims to better understand these complex multiscalar interactions. Seto and Shepherd (2009) and Voogt (2017) have highlighted the multiple pathways through which urbanization interacts with the climate system ( Table 23-1 ). Such

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