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Jenny Lindén, Jan Esper, and Björn Holmer

1. Introduction It is well known that anthropogenic changes in land cover and land use (LCLU) can impact climate, with the most pronounced effects found in urban areas. A changed energy balance caused by many factors—increased thermal admittance of urban materials, limited radiative and advective cooling due to the urban geometry, lowered evapotranspiration cooling due to sealed surfaces and limited vegetation coverage, and anthropogenic heat release—tend to increase air temperatures in urban

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Miao Yu, Jorge González, Shiguang Miao, and Prathap Ramamurthy

. Kondo , and Y. Shimoda , 2009 : Effects of anthropogenic heat release upon the urban climate in a Japanese megacity . Environ. Res. , 109 , 421 – 431 , . 10.1016/j.envres.2009.02.013 Ohashi , Y. , Y. Genchi , H. Kondo , Y. Kikegawa , H. Yoshikado , and Y. Hirano , 2007 : Influence of air-conditioning waste heat on air temperature in Tokyo during summer: Numerical experiments using an urban canopy model coupled with a building

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Yong-Sang Choi, Chang-Hoi Ho, Jinwon Kim, Dao-Yi Gong, and Rokjin J. Park

function of aerosol concentrations. The samples are categorized by successive rainless and rainy days as well as aerosol measurements over China during summer. Here R, C , and C * denote rainy, rainless, and aerosol-measured rainless days, respectively; RC*R, RCC*R , and RCCC*R indicate the cases of one, two, and three consecutive rainless days between rain days, respectively. The error bar corresponds to ±1 std error. Fig . 3. Possible long-term influence of anthropogenic effects such as the

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Ning Zhang and Yan Chen

1. Introduction Urbanization is one of the most extreme ways in which human activities change local land use and induce local land surface characteristics in urban areas that are substantially different from those in surrounding areas. These effects may alter the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere (e.g., Grimmond et al. 2004 ) and may affect atmospheric processes ranging from the local scale, such as the urban climate/meteorological environment (e.g., C. L. Zhang et al

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Ernest Agee, Andrea Orton, and John Rogers

develop the CO 2 sequestration facilities that can substantially curtail the effects of anthropogenic GHG warming. Fig . 3. The international arena of Antarctica. Potentially favorable locations for CO 2 sequestration facilities are along the coastal regions, with favorable katabatic winds and supporting research stations that can benefit from the excess thermal waste of the cooling plants. 4. Design of the CO 2 sequestration facility The components of the proposed Antarctic facility are

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Xiao-Ming Hu, Ming Xue, Petra M. Klein, Bradley G. Illston, and Sheng Chen

2000 ; Hu et al. 2013b ). Oke et al. (1991) used a simple energy balance model to assess the relative importance of the commonly stated intrinsic causes of UHI under calm and cloudless conditions, including anthropogenic heat, thermal properties/moisture availability of the materials of the city, street canyon geometry, and urban greenhouse gases. The first three of these were identified as the main intrinsic causative factors contributing to the UHII in a modeling study conducted by Ryu and

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Lauren M. Hand and J. Marshall Shepherd

. O. J. Brown , 2003 : Mountain and radar measurements of anthropogenic aerosol effects on snow growth and snowfall rate. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 30 , 1538 . doi:10.1029/2002GL016855 . Bradley , A. A. , and J. A. Smith , 1994 : The hydrometeorological environment of extreme rainstorms in the southern plains of the United States. J. Appl. Meteor. , 33 , 1428 – 1431 . Braham , R. R. , R. G. Semonin , A. H. Auer , S. A. Changnon Jr. , and J. M. Hales , 1981 : Summary

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J. S. Gregg, L. M. Losey, R. J. Andres, T. J. Blasing, and G. Marland

1. Introduction With the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere and its implications for global climate ( Solomon et al. 2007 ), there is a growing need for developing a more detailed description of the various components within the global carbon cycle. Scientific inquiries and analyses now call for data on anthropogenic CO 2 emissions at spatial and temporal scales finer than the countries and years at which emissions inventories have traditionally been conducted

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R. Bassett, P. J. Young, G. S. Blair, F. Samreen, and W. Simm

.5% ( United Nations 2015 ). Some end-of-century projections put Lagos’s population close to 100 million ( Hoornweg and Pope 2017 ). Yet, insufficient observations in Nigeria means understanding environmental risks is challenging ( Alens 2014 ). Inadvertent effects of large, rapid urbanization are well documented globally and include loss of vegetation and ecosystems ( Grimm et al. 2008 ; Seto et al. 2012 ; Ajibola et al. 2012 ; Obiefuna et al. 2013 ), degradation of water ( Ouyang et al. 2006

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Laura Feudale and Agostino Manzato

1. Introduction Lightning is one of the most powerful spectacles of nature, both for its danger and for its visual aspects. It also discharges a large amount of energy to Earth, produces significant chemical transformations (e.g., nitrogen oxides; Bond et al. 2002 ; Price and Rind 1994 ), and often has deadly effects (e.g., Holle et al. 2005 ; Ashley and Gilson 2009 ). Broadly speaking, lightning flashes may be grouped into two categories: those that strike the ground [cloud-to-ground (CG

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